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Glossary

The language of wine contains a wealth of meanings that are not all too familiar, particularly the technical interpretations. The glossary describes and offers an explanation to the most common terms.

maceration
letting the must rest on the grape skins for better extraction

In order to extract sufficient colour and phenolics from the skis of black grapes, there is usually a maceration of the must before proceeding to fermentation, which according to wine style, vintage and variety, can last from a few days to many weeks.

macroclimate
climate of a specific climate zone

The term climate refers to the sum of the influences and elements of the weather, such as temperature, sunshine hours, rainfall, amongst other factors, that occur over a longer period of time, as opposed to short term or current weather patterns. We differentiate between the macroclimate (the large climatic zones), the mesoclimate (climatic influence of the individual states or regions), and the microclimate (the local cliamte in the single-vineyards or sites). Austria has three major climatic zone, these being the continental climate, the Pannonian climate and the Mediterranean climate.

maderized
a sensoric term for an over-aged wine

A sensoric term for an over-aged wine, with one or more shades of brown in colour, and with an over-developed taste indicating it is well past its best. A comparison therefore with the intentional style of Maderia, is permitted.

Magnum
bottle size format

Bottle with 1.5 litre capacity.

main harvest

Dependant upon the weather conditions, this term refers to the most important harvesting period.

malic acid
natural acidity

Malic acid is one of the principal organic acids found in wine, that is widely present in under-ripe grapes and decomposes as the grapes naturally ripen.

malolactic
refers to the malolactic fermentation (MLF), and describes the conversion of stronger malic acid naturally present in new wines to lactic acid and carbon dioxide.

Refers to the malolactic fermentation (MLF), and describes the conversion of stronger malic acid naturally present in new wines to lactic acid and carbon dioxide. The conversion is caused by naturally occurring lactic acid bacteria. Malo wines are generally softer, have a smoother texture and are more stable. On the other hand, the malolactic fermentation is avoided for the fresher style of youthful and spicy white wines.

malolactic fermentation
reduction of the malic acid

Refers to the malolactic fermentation (MLF), and describes the conversion of stronger malic acid naturally present in new wines to lactic acid and carbon dioxide. The conversion is caused by naturally occurring lactic acid bacteria. Malo wines are generally softer, have a smoother texture and are more stable. On the other hand, the malolactic fermentation is avoided for the fresher style of youthful and spicy white wines.

malolactic fermentation
second fermentation

Refers to the malolactic fermentation (MLF), and describes the conversion of stronger malic acid naturally present in new wines to lactic acid and carbon dioxide. The conversion is caused by naturally occurring lactic acid bacteria. Malo wines are generally softer, have a smoother texture and are more stable. On the other hand, the malolactic fermentation is avoided for the fresher style of youthful and spicy white wines.

Malvasier, Frühroter Veltliner

A variety that is losing significance, usually cultivated for its table grapes or for young wine or pouring wine in one of the many winegrowing regions in Niederösterreich. The wines are generally soft and mild, with delicate aromas.

marc, pomace

The mashed rest of the pressed skins, pips (perhaps also stalks) from the grapes, that is recycled in the form of compost for the vineyard or distilled to produce brandy (in Italy the grappa and in France the marc).

marc, pomace

The mashed rest of the pressed skins, pips (perhaps also stalks) from the grapes, that is recycled in the form of compost for the vineyard or distilled to produce brandy (in Italy the grappa and in France the marc).

massive

Describes a grand and powerful wine, which has high alcohol and extract.

Master of Wine

The title MW is a qualification taken over many years study, and awarded by the Institute of Masters of Wine (founded in London in 1955). The Austrian Weinakademie (wine academy) in Rust offers part of the Master of Wine educational programme.

maturation
period of maturation

The maturation of the wine following the alcoholic fermentation.

mature
mature taste

Positive description for a mature wine, referring to the developing aromas.

mature
reached its peak maturity

The wine is fully developed and mature, having reached it peak.

mature, old
very developed aroma

This can be a positive description for a desired and typical aroma of maturity, yet also a negative term for an oxidised or over developed and unharmonious old wine.

matured in wood (or oak)
taste impression

Refers to the maturation or storage in large or small wooden (oak) barrels.

maximum yield (in hectares)

The maximum permitted yield per hectare in Austria is 9,000 kg of grapes or 6,750 l of wine (67.5 hl/ha). This applies to Landwein,Qualitätswein, Prädikatswein (high quality sweet wines) and Wein (Austrian wine without specific origin) with varietal and/or vintage declaration.

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