The language of wine contains a wealth of meanings that are not all too familiar, particularly the technical interpretations. The glossary describes and offers an explanation to the most common terms.

racking
the racking of the clear wine from the sediment in a tank or barrel

Wine-making operation of removing the clear wine from the settled sediment or lees.

racking
the racking of the clear wine from the sediment in a tank or barrel

wine-making operation of removing the clear wine from the settled sediment or lees.

racking
the removal of the clear wine from the sediment from a tank or barrel

The removal of the clear wine from the sediment in a tank or barrel. The wine is taken off the gross lees and cloudy particles.

racy

Describes a wine with robust acidity and vibrant spice.

raisins

Dried wine grapes (raisins), the colloquial term for the dried grapes used for Trockenbeerenauslese.

Ráthay

A new crossing from Klosterneuburg from Blauburger x (Seyve Villard 18-402 x Blaufränkisch), which is named after the second director of the viticultural school in Klosterneuburg, Emmerich Ráthay (1845-1900). The variety was classified as a quality grape variety in 2000 and is favoured (particularly by certified organic wine producers) for is resisitance against mildew and cold frosts. Yet the variety is still quite insignificant.

RCGM
rectified concentrated grape must

In the EU, must may be chaptalized by using rectified concentrated grape must (RCGM), or to sweeten the wine. In Austria, this is seldomly practised.

red wine
red wine is made from black grape varieties

red wine is made from black grape varieties, having spent a prolonged time in contact with the skins during maceration and fermentation, to increase colour intensity and tannin.

reducing the yield

The basis for quality in the vineyard, the so-called "unwritten law" in viticulture. The higher the yield, the lower the quality, and vice versa, and generally a rule of thumb is to leave eight bunches of grapes per vine.

reducing the yield
measurement of quality in the vineyard by reducing the yield

The grapes are divided up on the vine, so that the lowest part of the grapes can be cut off before they can ripen.

reductive vinification
Vinification of a wine (usually in stainless steel tank) with little or no contact with oxygen.

Sulphur is an age old method of aiding reduction, yet nowadays producers work with gas.

reference wine in tastings

During a wine tasting or wine competition, a reference wine is tasted beforehand to calibrate the tasters' palates.

refermentation

If there is insufficient hygiene during the fermentation, the remaining residual sugars can accidentally referment in the bottle. This is visually recognisable from tears on the inside of the bottle, or on the palate, there is an typical sensation of carbon dioxide.

Refractometer
Refractor instrument used to measure the content of sugar in a grape or in must.
refrigeration
important process during the fermentation

Important wine-making operation during fermentation, with the purpose of controlling the fermentation or arresting the fermentation (particularly with white wines), but also for the removal of tartrate crystals (cold stabilisation). There are various methods used for cooling the grapes, must or wine.

regrafting
changing the grape variety in a vineyard

This process is also known as regrafting an existing vineyard. Here, a scion or single bud of the new grape variety is grafted onto the existing rootstock or shoot of the existing vine. The advantage is that the existing and established root system remains intact.

regrafting
changing the grape variety in a vineyard

This process is also known as regrafting an existing vineyard. Here, a scion or single bud of the new grape variety is grafted onto the existing rootstock or shoot of the existing vine. The advantage is that the existing and established root system remains intact.

Reserve
Supplementary indication for Qualtätswein or Sekt g.U.

The term "Reserve" may only be used for Qualitätswein (quality wine) with a minimum alcohol level of 13%. The application for a Federal Inspection Number may not be submitted before 15 March following the harvest for white Reserve wines and 1 November in the year following the harvest for red Reserve wines. In the case of regionally typical DAC wines, the use of the term "Reserve" is forbidden, if not otherwise stated in the applicable DAC regulation. In that case, the earliest date for the submission of the wine to the Federal Inspection Number is regulated.

Sekt with protected designation of origin (Sekt g.U.) and Qualitätsschaumwein (quality sparkling wine) with protected designation of origin (Qualitätsschaumwein g.U.) may only be marketed in conjunction with the terms "Klassik", "Reserve" and "Grosse Reserve", and in compliance with established criteria.

residual sugar

Refers to the remaining sugar content of the grapes or must that has not been fermented into alcohol, and is the result of a natural or deliberate arrest of the fermentation.

residual sugar

Refers to the remaining sugar content of the grapes or must that has not been fermented into alcohol, and is the result of a natural or deliberate arrest of the fermentation.

Residual sugar
refers to the natural sugars that have not been converted into alcohol

Caused by the natural or deliberate interruption of the fermentation.

residual sugar content

The residual sugar content must be declared on Austrian wine labels. The values of trocken (dry) and halbtrocken (medium dry) are dependant upon their given acidity levels. The terms are; trocken (dry) up to 9 g/l, halbtrocken (medium dry) up to 18 g/l and lieblich (medium sweet) up to a maximum of 45 g/l, and süß (sweet) relates to all wines above 45 g/l.

resveratrol
The substance that is found in red wines and believed to have a positive effect on cardio-vascular diseases.

englische Übersetzung fehlt!

retronasal organ
the connection between the oropharynx and the nasal cavity

This is where aromatic molecules touch our sensory cells, and we think we are actually tasting the wine, but in fact we are smelling it again.

reverse osmosis
a process used to concentrate must

This is a wine-making operation used to increase the concentration of the must, whereby a filter membrane with a very small pores, so that only water molecules at high pressure can pass through them. This form of concentration (reverse osmosis) has been permitted in the EU for a number of years, and is already a practice employed in Austria as an alternative to chaptalization in red wine production.

reverse osmosis, vacuum evapouration
methods used to draw water out of the must, must concentration

This is a wine-making operation used to increase the concentration of the must, whereby water and grape juice is drawn out of the must. In a vacuum, water begins to evapourate at 25 °C to 30 °C, without having any negative effect on the aromas of the finished wine. This form of concentration has been permitted in the EU for a number of years, and is already a practice employed in Austria as an alterative to chaptalization in red wine production. Vacuum evapouration is also a process used for the production of alcohol-free wine.

Rhine or Hock-shaped bottle
bottle shape

Refers to the slim and high bottle shape, that was popular in the Rheingau winegrowing region.

riddling
important wine-making operation in the production of sparkling wine after the second fermentation in the bottle

following the second fermentation, the dead lees collect at the base of the bottle. These deposits are gradually riddled into the neck of the bottle, either by machine or by hand, prior to their removal from the bottle.

Riesling
white wine variety

An old variety, that probably originates from a wild vine that has mutated and developed. Regarded as the "King of White Wines", the variety produces wines of outstanding quality in the winegrowing regions around the Danube, with fruity stone fruit aroma, vibrant acidity and mineral spice. Well-aged Riesling wines display tertiary aromas (of petrol) and are capable of keeping at their best for many decades.

ringer wine

A colloquial term for a unrelated wine substituted in a blind tasting, and is typically the odd one out.

rinsing the wine glass

The general term that encourages the taster to rinse the glass out well with wine, to eliminate unwanted, foreign aromas, that might come from a dishwasher, closed cupboard or cardboard box.

rinsing the wine glass

The general term that encourages the taster to rinse the glass out well with wine, to eliminate unwanted, foreign aromas, that might come from a dishwasher, closed cupboard or cardboard box.

ripe

A wine that offers a certain fullness, without loss of zest or spice, and often associated with yellow (ripe) fruit.

ripeness

A description with many meanings, and related to a number of areas. In viticulture, we know of the ripeness of wood and grapes, and we talk of the ripening stages, such as the full ripeness or physiological ripeness, overripeness and also the premature ripening. In vinification, we talk of maturity of a wine before bottling, or bottle maturity and the maturity of a wine. For sommelieres, drinking maturity is an important factor.

Rivaner
white wine variety

This is an early ripening variety with softness and delicate aromas. The crossing was made by the Swiss botanist Hermann Müller from the Swiss canton of Thurgau, and is Riesling x Chasselat de Courtillier (Madeleine Royal). For many years, it was misunderstood to be the crossing of Riesling x Sylvaner, hence the name Rivaner, yet nowadays, the variety is predominantly cultivated for its use in young wines (such as the Junker or Junger Österreicher) and in cases for sweet wines.

roasted

roasted spice, that derive from maturation in oak barrels (toasting = barrel is charred with fire) and this taste is passed onto the wine during maturation. The range of toasting is from light to medium to heavy.

robust

Describes a firm and powerful wine with distinctive acidity or tannin structure.

Roesler

A new crossing created at the Klosterneuburg oenology school nursery from the varieties Zweigelt x (Seyve-Villard 18-402 x Blaufränkisch), that is particularly resistant to fungal vine diseases. This double-crossing is named after Leonhard Roesler (1839 – 1919), who was also a director at the oenology school in Klosterneuburg. The variety is well suited to organic viticulture, and was classified as a quality variety in the year 2000. The wines display a deep, intensive colour, are rich in extract and have a characteristic spice. The variety is a popular blending partner.

rootstock
the rootstock onto which European varieties are grafted

The native American vines or inter-specific hybrid varieties are used for rootstocks, as these are resisitent to phylloxera. The most popular choices in Austria are Kober 5 BB, SO 4, 5 C.

Rosalia

Winegrowing region
Here primarily Blaufränkisch and Zweigelt are cultivated on 297 hectares, with admirable results.

Rosalia DAC

As of the 2017 vintage the regionally typical Blaufränkisch and Zweigelt can be sold as Rosalia DAC or Rosalia DAC Reserve.

rosé
a light, pink-coloured wine made from black grapes

the colour develops during a speedy pressing of the juice. The longer the maceration, the more intensive the colour. In Austria, the old term "Gleichgepresster" or white-pressed grapes is hardly in use, and in Germany, rosé wines are also known as "Weißherbst".

rot

Fungal rot or disease primarily affect the grapes and grape berries. In its destructive form when unripe grapes are infected, it can lead to wine fault (grey rot), yet when the grapes are ripe, it is seen in its benevolent form of noble rot, the prerquisite for nobly sweet wines, such as Beerenauslese, Ausbruch and Trockenbeerenauslese.

rotary vessel
a drum-like piece of equipment used to move the mush during red wine vinification

nowadays this piece of equipment has little significance

Rotburger
Zweigelt

Its creator, Prof. Dr. Fritz Zweigelt, successfully crossed Blaufränkisch x St. Laurent in 1922, and paved Austrian red wine history. Up until his death in 1964, the variety was known as Rotburger. Nowadays there are classic and fruity respresentatives of the wine, with cherry and berry aromas, as well as very ripe, extract rich top wines, that display feminine, fruity charm. With plantings of 13 percent of the total Austrian winegrowing region, this is by far the most planted and popular Austrian red wine variety.

Roter Traminer
the most common of the aromatic Traminer varieties
Roter Veltliner
indigenous white wine variety with a reddish grape skin

the variety is primarily cultivated in Wagram, but is also found in Kamptal, Kremstal and in the Weinviertel. The old variety demands a great deal of canopy management in the vineyard, and the exciting wines always display robust acidity and aromas of dried fruit.

Rotgipfler
indigenous white wine variety in the Thermenregion

the Rotgipfler is a natural crossing of Traminer x Roter Veltliner, and it gets its name from the reddish, bronze shoot tips. The noble wines from Traiskirchen and Gumpoldskirchen excel with ripe, yet neutral fruit, with delicate herbaceousness and rich sweetness due to high extracts. Occasionally, one can find the blend of Rotgipfler and Zierfandler called "Spätrot-Rotgipfler“.

rough

Describes a very dry and bitter wine, with a high proportion of phenolics or youthful tannins, and sometimes the result of too much sulphur.

round

describes a harmonious and balanced wine, without any corners or edges

Rubin Carnuntum
brand collaboration

brand association from Carnuntum, that is devoted and specialised in the production of Zweigelt and Blaufränkisch. The approved wines from the members also carry this name.

Ruländer
a Pinot variety

Ruländer was once a common synonym for Grauburgunder (Pinot Gris). The name originates from the German merchant called Ruland from Speyer, who was responsible for introducing this Pinot variety at the beginning of the 18th Century.

Ruster Ausbruch
wine speciality from the free town of Rust

Austrian nobly sweet wine produced from nobly sweet, shriveled grapes, with a minimum required must weight of 30° KMW.
 

rustic

usually a simple wine without great elegance or finesse, and often with a full-bodied structure.

RWB
Rennomierte Weingüter Burgenland

the 'Renommierte Weingüter Burgenlands' association (literally the renowned, or prestigious wine estates of Burgenland) is a collaboration of the best wine producers in Burgenland, who have proved themselves in quality-orientated viticulture.

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