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Glossary

The language of wine contains a wealth of meanings that are not all too familiar, particularly the technical interpretations. The glossary describes and offers an explanation to the most common terms.

closure

Alongside the traditional natural cork closure, there is also a wide range of alternative closures available on the market, which have appeared in recent years. These are the screwcap closures, glass closures, plastic cork closures, agglomerate corks and combination corks (agglomerate with two layers of natural cork), as well as the crown cork or cap closure.

cloudiness

Refers to a wine that is not (yet) bright and clear, or a wine that has gone hazy.

cloudy

A wine fault, when the wine is cloudy or hazy, with either white, black or brown curd-like floating matter.

cold fermentation
microbiological decomposition of organic matter

The alcoholic fermentation converts the available sugars in the grape must into alcohol and carbon dioxide, with brewer's yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) as its catalyst. During this process, heat is produced, along with carbon gases, that need to be released. (Grape must + yeasts = alcohol + carbon dioxide + heat).

cold maceration
cooling of the grapes during the maceration to below 18 °C

Cold maceraction or cold soak is the cooling of the grapes during the maceration to below 18 °C, thus preventing the fermentation and the process helps to draw out the aromas, colour extract and tannins (particularly with red wines).

cold stabilsation
important wine-making operation during fermentation

Important wine-making operation during fermentation, with the purpose of controlling the fermentation or arresting the fermentation (particularly with white wines), but also for the removal of tartrate crystals (cold stabilisation). There are various methods used for cooling the grapes, must or wine.

collective vineyard site
a large vineyard area

This refers to a large vineyard area that is often shared by a large number of neighbouring producers, and are situated within a winegrowing region or commune. The character of the wines is usually similar, and although the term Grosslage is less common in Austria than it is in Germany, there are examples in the Weinviertel (Matzner-Hügel), Mittelburgenland (Goldbachtal), Wagram (Klosterneuburg), and Vienna (Nußberg).

colour

In wine tasting, we differentiate between the depth and the shade of the colour. With red wines, the core and the hue (edge) are also considered. Generally, white wine gains a darker shade with bottle age, and red wine becomes lighter over time.

complex

A wine that displays an array of aromas and flavours.

complex

describes a wine with a wide spectrum of aromas.

concentrated grape must

Concentrated grape must alternative to sugar beet (sucrose) for use in chaptalization. In some EU countries, Rectified Concentrated Grape Must (RCGM) is used, see chaptalization.

connoisseur
wine expert

French term for a wine expert

controlled fermentation
microbiological decomposition of organic matter

The alcoholic fermentation converts the available sugars in the grape must into alcohol and carbon dioxide, with brewer's yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) as its catalyst. During this process, heat is produced, along with carbon gases, that need to be released. (Grape must + yeasts = alcohol + carbon dioxide + heat).

cool, temperature controlled fermentation
temperature controlled microbiological decomposition of organic matter

A temperature-controlled or cool fermentation is an important measure in quality, particularly for white wines. At a temperature of 18° to 20° Celsius, the fermentation process is slower and more consistent, with reduced loss of alcohol and aromas. This is achieved by the continuous stream of flowing water along the cooling hoses in the tanks or casks, or by refrigerated in double-skin tanks.

cooper
constructor of oak barrels
copper sulphate
the product used for treating wines with hydrogen sulphide odour or the smell of rotten eggs

The product used for treating wines with hydrogen sulphide odour or the smell of rotten eggs.

cordon spur training
type of vine training system

Internationally widespread form of vine training system (with wires) with a specific method of pruning.

cork taint
a wine fault that displays an undesirable mouldy, musty smell and taste

A wine fault that displays an undesirable mouldy, musty smell and taste. The cause is the presence of trichloroanisole (TCA), and we differentiate between the classic (unmistakable) cork taint, and a subtle taste of cork, and the latter often suppresses the fruit of the wine and can be difficult to detect.

corked
cork taint

The German word "stoppelt" refers to a wine with cork taint.

corks
type of bottle closure

Natural bottle closure made from the bark of the cork oak. Natural cork has the benefit of being flexible, allows a certain amount of airflow, and generally has a positive image. The disadvantages are the risk of cork taint, the high price, its susceptibility to the cork moth as well as its limited lifespan. Further types of cork closures are, amongst other forms, the agglomerate cork and the combination cork.