The language of wine contains a wealth of meanings that are not all too familiar, particularly the technical interpretations. The glossary describes and offers an explanation to the most common terms.

to thin out
reducing the yield

To improve quality and reduce yield, a defined number of unripe grapes are removed in the so-called green harvest.

to tip, or prune
canopy management in the vineyard

Refers to canopy management, and the cutting or pruning of the overhanging (lateral) shoots.

Toasting

Roasted spice, that derive from maturation in oak barrels (toasting = barrel is charred with fire) and this taste is passed onto the wine during maturation. The range of toasting is from light to medium to heavy.

topography
the name of a vintner association

Association of vintners that is primarily based in the winegrowing regions of Kremstal and Kamptal in Niederösterreich. Its members developed the classification system of the single vineyards.
 

topping up

Wine in tanks or barrels evaporates, and needs to be regularly topped, or filled up, to avoid unwanted oxidation.

total acidity

The total acidity is one of the most important elements of the grape, the must and the wine. There are numerous acidities, the most common being tartaric acid and malic acid. Other important acidities include citric acid, acetic acid and succinic acid.

total alcohol
the sum of the alcohol by volume and the unfermented residual sugars of the potential alcohol

Common term for ethanol. During the process of fermentation, the sugars are converted partially or completely into alcohol. We differ between alcohol by volume (as declared on the label) with potential alcohol (the theoretical value if the sugars were allowed to ferment dry) and total alcohol (the sum of available and potential alcohol).

total extract
the total of all non-volative solids in the wine,

The total of all non-volative solids in the wine, including sugar, colour, tannin, acidity, traces of minerals, protein, and glycerine. If the sugars were to be removed, we call this the sugar-free extract of the wine. The value is always given in grams per litre (g/l).

Traditionsweingüter
the name of a vintner association

Association of vintners that is primarily based in the winegrowing regions of Kremstal and Kamptal in Niederösterreich. Its members developed the classification system of the single vineyards.
 

Training system or form
choice of training or trellis systems in the vineyard

The choice of training system for the vines in the vineyard. The most widespread form of training system is wire training (Drahtrahmenerziehung), an offshoot being Lenz Moser's high culture (Hochkultur) training system, that replaced the once very popular bush vine cultivation.

Traisental
winegrowing region

One of Austria’s youngest winegrowing regions is also one of its smallest (815 ha). The best producers with their typically spicy Traisental DAC Grüner Veltliner and Rieslings have gained international accolades.  Read more

Traisental DAC

The designation and marketing term for regionally typical Grüner Veltliner and Riesling that is permitted from the 2007 vintage for the Klassik (classic) and Reserve categories.

Traminer
white wine variety

The Traminer is an ancient variety that has probably developed from a wild vine crossing, and is internationally widespread. There are three Traminer varieties in Austria, the Roter Traminer, Gelber Traminer and the Gewürztraminer, and at least one is cultivated in all of the winegrowing regions. The volcanic soils of the Südoststeiermark provide the optimum conditions for this aromatic variety. The wines display a pronounced range of aromas, often reminiscent of wild roses and citrus fruit. Traminer wines are usually soft and always rich in extract, with a delicate residual sugar that is in balance with a bitterness so typical of the variety. Traminer can also produce sweet wines with great aging potential.

transvasement method
a compromise of bottle and tank fermentation

In this method of sparkling wine production, the second fermentation indeed occurs in the bottle, but the removal of the lees is performed via filtration in a tank.

trocken
dry

EU wine legislation has the following regulations for dryness: up to 4 g/l residual sugar, or up to a maximum of 9 g/l if the total acidity is no more than 2 g/l below the value of the residual sugar. It is perhaps easier to remember acidity + 2 (max. 9 g/l residual sugar).

Trockenbeerenauslese
highest category of sweet wine

A berry selection of predominantly nobly sweet, largely shrunken grapes with a minimum must weight of 30° KMW.

Tronçais
choice of oak with narrow pores, used in the contruction of small oak barrels
typicity

The virtue of wines, whose aromas and flavours are typical of a certain varietal or origin character.

Uhudler
wine made from American native vines or inter-specific hybrid varieties

Uhudler is the umbrella term for these diverse varieties, that are used in the cultivation of this type of wine (predominantly in the winegrowing region of Eisenberg). The wines display pronounded aromas of wild wood strawberries and raspberry.

ullage
natural evaporation of wine, especially from oak barrels

The smaller the barrel, the larger or greater the evaporation of the liquid, due to the larger percentage of surface area to volume. If wine bottles are stored for a long period of time, the wine may also evaporate.

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