The language of wine contains a wealth of meanings that are not all too familiar, particularly the technical interpretations. The glossary describes and offers an explanation to the most common terms.

to bring to the right temperature

The same meaning as chambrer, the French term that describes preparing the wine to the correct termperature. (Chambre = room).

to concentrate
to draw water out of the must, must concentration

this is a wine-making operation used to increase the concentration of the must, whereby water and grape juice is drawn out of the must. In a vacuum, water begins to evapourate at 25 °C to 30 °C, without having any negative effect on the aromas of the finished wine. This form of concentration has been permitted in the EU for a number of years, and is already a practice employed in Austria as an alterative to chaptalization in red wine production. Vacuum evapouration is also a process used for the production of alcohol-free wine.

to decant (wine)
pouring wine into another vessel

Prior to serving, the wine is poured into a carafe or decanter, to remove the wine from its sediment. Should the wine not have any sediment or dregs, and only requires agitation to allow the aromas to evolve, then we call this process aeration.

to fortify
addition of alcohol

Used in the production of fortified wines, by adding brandy to arrest the fermenting grape must.

to fortify

During the production of fortified wines, a spirit is added to the fermenting must to improve its shelf life. Popular fortified wines include port, sherry, madeira and so on.

to graft

Describes the grafting of European scions onto the phylloxera resistent rootstocks by practised grafters in vine nurseries.

to impregnate
artificial impregnation or addition of carbon dioxide

The impregnation of carbon dioxide is a common and efficient practice in the production of sparkling wine. The wine label must specify, that the sparkling wine was produced using added carbon dioxide.

to make wine, to crush

Wine-making operation when the must is separated from the solid grapes or mash.

to mulch, to add mulch
agricultural work in the vineyard

Agricultural work in the vineyard, in which the soil is covered with compost and mulch (organic materials such as grass-cuttings, straw and so on). This is later worked into the soil to improve its overall condition and increase the humus content.

to neutralise (new wooden casks)
the process of neutralising a new wooden wine cask or wine container, so that it is clean before it is filled with a must or wine

This is achieved by water, steam or sterilisation. If the oak barrels are not toasted, and will eliminate the unripe "green" note (describes in German as Neuerl, or "new" taste). The same process applies to wine glasses or decanters, which are rinsed through either with water or a small measure of wine.

to press

The wine-making operation of removing the must from the solid grape material or grape pomace.

to prune
canopy management in the vineyard

Refers to canopy management, and the cutting or pruning of the overhanging (lateral) shoots.

to rack

The young wine is racked, or removed from the gross lees or yeasts.

to rack
the racking of the clear wine from the sediment in a tank or barrel

Wine-making operation of removing the clear wine from the settled sediment or lees.

to rack

Must or wine is removed from one tank or barrel, and either by means of gravity or pumping, is transferred into another. Therefore the wine is removed from its sediment, or is deliberately exposed to atmospheric oxygen (especially with red wine vinification).

to spit

It is practice to spit out the tasted wine, as opposed to swallowing it, during professional, prolonged wine tastings.

to spray (the vines)

The common term for spraying the vines with plant protective sprays (e.g. pesticides).

to sterilise

Harmful micro organisms in wine, or in the vinification equipment, are elimitated or removed.

to stop

Arresting the fermentation, to retain the natural residual sugar.

to store, storage, aging

Wine that are yet to reach their peak in maturity require storage to enable them to age. The most ideal conditions are dark, cool and not to dry cellars. Alternatively, a modern wine refrigerator will replicate these conditions.


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