The language of wine contains a wealth of meanings that are not all too familiar, particularly the technical interpretations. The glossary describes and offers an explanation to the most common terms.

acescence
wine fault

Wine fault, that smells of vinegar (volative acidity).

acetaldehyde
group of chemical compounds known as aldehydes

Responsible for wine faults, such as oxidation, re-fermentation and acetone.

acetone
a wine fault, with a smell reminiscent of nail varnish remover
Achterl
125ml glass serving

the “Steh-Achterl” means to drink a glass of wine while standing and “Flucht-Achterl” is the last glass before reluctantly leaving.

acidity
One of the most important components of the grape, the must and the wine.

There are many different acidities, the most significant are tartaric acid and malic acid. Other important types of acidities are citric acid, acetic acid and succinic acid.

acidity

The total content of acidity in is generally between 4 and 10 g/l (the total acidity is declared on the Federal Inspection Number assessment) In extreme cases, (such as with Schilcher, Eiswein (ice wine) or Trockenbeerenauslese), this value can be higher.

aeration
decanting wine into a carafe

Rich and full-bodied wines often require agitation or aeration prior to serving. Such wines are decanted into a carafe, so that the wine has ample room to aerate and allow the aromas to develop. Pouring the wine into a glass also helps the aeration process.

aeration
the act of decanting wine into a carafe

Describes the deliberate action of decanting of wine, to agitate it and therefore accelarate the aeration process, so that it may be enjoyed earlier.

aftertaste
another term for length or finish
aggressive
biting, harsh, sharp (taste)

Usually caused by the acidity or tannins.

agraffe
small wire cage

The small wire cage that secures the cork of a Sekt or Champagne bottle. Also known as Muselet.

alcohol
Term for ethanal

Common term for ethanol. During the process of fermentation, the sugars are converted partially or completely into alcohol. We differ between alcohol by volume (as declared on the label) with potential alcohol (the theoretical value if the sugars were allowed to ferment dry) and total alcohol (the sum of available and potential alcohol).

alcohol-free wine
wine with the alcohol removed

Wine that has had the alcohol removed following the alcoholic fermentation.

alcoholic taste
Brandy-like taste

The sharp, alcoholic and brandy-like taste. Rather a negative wine description.

Aldehyd
resembles the smell of Sherry

Sherry-like smell and taste of oxidation.

allier
oak

This refers to the choice of French oak, named after the river and department in central France, this is used for constructing oak barrels (barrique).

American oak

A colloquial term for the choice of oak used for wooden barrels, made using the white oak from the United States. These barrels are distinctive for their pronounced roasted aromas and taste of coconut and vanilla.

American vines
Grape vines from North, Central and South America

A colloquial term for the non-European grapevine varieties, that originate from North, Central and South America, and do not belong to the European Vitis vinifera grape family. Common examples in Austria are Isabella, Delaware and Otello.

Ampelography
The study of vines

The scientific study of vines.

ampelography
the study of vines (ampelography)
analysis
physical or chemical analysis

Physical or chemical analysis to determine the composition of the wine composition. Every Austrian Qualitätswein (quality wine) available for sale must be inspected and have the chemical analysis examined.

aperitif
drink prior to the food

The collective term for drinks, usually alcoholic, that are served as an appetiser before a meal.

aroma
flavour compounds

"The positive description of the aroma components that derive from the grape. The various types of aromas, ranging from floral, fruity, spicy and so on, are listed in the aroma wheel. Both the bouquet in the nose and the retronasal aroma perception at the back of the throat, often described in English as the flavour.
We sub-divide the aromas into three categories, the primary, secondary and tertiary aromas or bouquet. Primary aromas refer to the fruit flavour components found in the grape, and which upon tasting, are recognisable with aromas present in the finished wine. We speak of wine-like or grapey aromas, and often you can recognise the character of the grape variety from a particular scent of berries, fruit, petals or flower, for example the intense rose petal aroma in Traminer. The secondary aromas come from the winery, and are aromatic components that derive from grape handling, fermentation and the maturation of the wine. You can even refer to the smell of fermentation, or detect wine faults (such as too much sulphur dioxide) yet the more desirable aromas include roasting or toasting and vanilla from oak barrel aging. The tertiary aromas are those that develop with bottle aging, a typical example being the development of the petrol note with maturing Riesling. Again, wine faults may also be included, the most common being cork taint".

aroma
aroma or scent

"The positive description of the aroma components that derive from the grape. The various types of aromas, ranging from floral, fruity, spicy and so on, are listed in the aroma wheel. Both the bouquet in the nose and the retronasal aroma perception at the back of the throat, often described in English as the flavour.
We sub-divide the aromas into three categories, the primary, secondary and tertiary aromas or bouquet. Primary aromas refer to the fruit flavour components found in the grape, and which upon tasting, are recognisable with aromas present in the finished wine. We speak of wine-like or grapey aromas, and often you can recognise the character of the grape variety from a particular scent of berries, fruit, petals or flower, for example the intense rose petal aroma in Traminer. The secondary aromas come from the winery, and are aromatic components that derive from grape handling, fermentation and the maturation of the wine. You can even refer to the smell of fermentation, or detect wine faults (such as too much sulphur dioxide) yet the more desirable aromas include roasting or toasting and vanilla from oak barrel aging. The tertiary aromas are those that develop with bottle aging, a typical example being the development of the petrol note with maturing Riesling. Again, wine faults may also be included, the most common being cork taint"

aroma
scent

A tasting description referring to the the aromas smelt through the nose.

aroma wheel
a list of all the aroma and flavour compounds found in wine

The aroma wheel is a comprehensive list of all aromas and flavours found in wine, such as fruity, floral, plant-like or herbaceous (vegetive), spicy notes, with a hint of caramel, smoky or burnt aromas, soil notes and microbiological aromas.

aromatic
intensive impressions of the bouquet

Describing a wine with a pronounced bouquet and intensive taste (e.g. Traminer, Gelber Muskateller).

aromatic
delicate and subtle

Wine with a fine and delicate floral aromas or of flowers are described as being aromatic.

arrested (fermentation)
interrupted (fermentation)

The deliberate interruption or termination of the fermentation, giving the wine retained natural residual sugar.

ash
residue left when something is burned

The total residue and non-burnable elements (e.g. traces of minerals) of a wine.

astringent

A wine with astringent tannins, or that is tannic, leaving a drying, often bitter taste, usually found in red wine.

Ausbruch
style of classified sweet wine

Ausbruch is the name for a high quality Austrian nobly sweet wine made from botrytis cinerea infected grapes, and is a speciality from the town of Rust in Burgenland. The Austrian wine law states a minimum must weight is 30° Klosterneuburg Must Weight Scale (KMW).

Auslese
style of classified sweet wine

Auslese is the name for a high Austrian Qualitätswein (quality wine) made from fully ripened grapes The Austrian wine law states that the minimum must weight is 21° KMW (approx 105° oechsle).

Austrian Wine Academy

The Austrian Wine Academy (Weinakademie Österreich) is a non-profit organisation established in 1991, and is a subsidary company of the AWMB. It offers its own semianr and further education programme for all those interested in wine, and is a recognised national and international teaching institute. The Wine Academy centres are located in Rust and Krems, and seminars are held across Austria by qualified partners. The four tier educational programme begins with the Foundation Seminar, Advanced Certificate I and II, along with an international part, the Diploma in Wine and Spirits (Title in Austria being the Weinakademiker), that is the prerquisite for the Master of Wine educational programme.

awards
usually official wine awards conducted in wine competitions

A significant wine award competition in Austria is the SALON Österreich Wein, and these wines are primarily selected by the regional wine tasting committees. The Austrian Wine Challenge (AWC) is one of the world's most successful wine competitions, with over 10,000 entries. The prize-giving ceremony takes place annually in Vienna's City Hall (Rathaus).

AWMB
Austrian Wine Marketing Board

The AWMB is short for the Austrian Wine Marketing Board, which has the task of strategically supporting, coordinating and maintaining quality and sales in the Austrian wine industry. This is achieved by ongoing image work and folder, sales support and incentives as well as a proactive press and public relations campaign.

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