Glossary

The language of wine contains a wealth of meanings that are not all too familiar, particularly the technical interpretations. The glossary describes and offers an explanation to the most common terms.

  • acescence
    wine fault

    Wine fault, that smells of vinegar (volative acidity).

    acetaldehyde
    group of chemical compounds known as aldehydes

    Responsible for wine faults, such as oxidation, re-fermentation and acetone.

    acetone
    a wine fault, with a smell reminiscent of nail varnish remover
    Achterl
    125ml glass serving

    the “Steh-Achterl” means to drink a glass of wine while standing and “Flucht-Achterl” is the last glass before reluctantly leaving.

    acidity
    One of the most important components of the grape, the must and the wine.

    There are many different acidities, the most significant are tartaric acid and malic acid. Other important types of acidities are citric acid, acetic acid and succinic acid.

    acidity

    The total content of acidity in is generally between 4 and 10 g/l (the total acidity is declared on the State control number assessment) In extreme cases, (such as with Schilcher, Eiswein (ice wine) or Trockenbeerenauslese), this value can be higher.

    aeration
    decanting wine into a carafe

    Rich and full-bodied wines often require agitation or aeration prior to serving. Such wines are decanted into a carafe, so that the wine has ample room to aerate and allow the aromas to develop. Pouring the wine into a glass also helps the aeration process.

    aeration
    the act of decanting wine into a carafe

    Describes the deliberate action of decanting of wine, to agitate it and therefore accelarate the aeration process, so that it may be enjoyed earlier.

    aftertaste
    another term for length or finish
    aggressive
    biting, harsh, sharp (taste)

    Usually caused by the acidity or tannins.

    agraffe
    small wire cage

    The small wire cage that secures the cork of a Sekt or Champagne bottle. Also known as Muselet.

    alcohol
    Term for ethanal

    Common term for ethanol. During the process of fermentation, the sugars are converted partially or completely into alcohol. We differ between alcohol by volume (as declared on the label) with potential alcohol (the theoretical value if the sugars were allowed to ferment dry) and total alcohol (the sum of available and potential alcohol).

    alcohol-free wine
    wine with the alcohol removed

    Wine that has had the alcohol removed following the alcoholic fermentation.

    alcoholic taste
    Brandy-like taste

    The sharp, alcoholic and brandy-like taste. Rather a negative wine description.

    Aldehyd
    resembles the smell of Sherry

    Sherry-like smell and taste of oxidation.

    allier
    oak

    This refers to the choice of French oak, named after the river and department in central France, this is used for constructing oak barrels (barrique).

    Amelography
    The study of vines

    The scientific study of vines.

    American oak

    A colloquial term for the choice of oak used for wooden barrels, made using the white oak from the United States. These barrels are distinctive for their pronounced roasted aromas and taste of coconut and vanilla.

    American vines
    Grape vines from North, Central and South America

    A colloquial term for the non-European grapevine varieties, that originate from North, Central and South America, and do not belong to the European Vitis vinifera grape family. Common examples in Austria are Isabella, Delaware and Otello.

    ampelography
    the study of vines (ampelography)
    analysis
    physical or chemical analysis

    Physical or chemical analysis to determine the composition of the wine composition. Every Austrian quality wine available for sale must be inspected and have the chemical analysis examined.

    aperitif
    drink prior to the food

    The collective term for drinks, usually alcoholic, that are served as an appetiser before a meal.

    aroma
    flavour compounds

    "The positive description of the aroma components that derive from the grape. The various types of aromas, ranging from floral, fruity, spicy and so on, are listed in the aroma wheel. Both the bouquet in the nose and the retronasal aroma perception at the back of the throat, often described in English as the flavour.
    We sub-divide the aromas into three categories, the primary, secondary and tertiary aromas or bouquet. Primary aromas refer to the fruit flavour components found in the grape, and which upon tasting, are recognisable with aromas present in the finished wine. We speak of wine-like or grapey aromas, and often you can recognise the character of the grape variety from a particular scent of berries, fruit, petals or flower, for example the intense rose petal aroma in Traminer. The secondary aromas come from the winery, and are aromatic components that derive from grape handling, fermentation and the maturation of the wine. You can even refer to the smell of fermentation, or detect wine faults (such as too much sulphur dioxide) yet the more desirable aromas include roasting or toasting and vanilla from oak barrel aging. The tertiary aromas are those that develop with bottle aging, a typical example being the development of the petrol note with maturing Riesling. Again, wine faults may also be included, the most common being cork taint".

    aroma
    aroma or scent

    "The positive description of the aroma components that derive from the grape. The various types of aromas, ranging from floral, fruity, spicy and so on, are listed in the aroma wheel. Both the bouquet in the nose and the retronasal aroma perception at the back of the throat, often described in English as the flavour.
    We sub-divide the aromas into three categories, the primary, secondary and tertiary aromas or bouquet. Primary aromas refer to the fruit flavour components found in the grape, and which upon tasting, are recognisable with aromas present in the finished wine. We speak of wine-like or grapey aromas, and often you can recognise the character of the grape variety from a particular scent of berries, fruit, petals or flower, for example the intense rose petal aroma in Traminer. The secondary aromas come from the winery, and are aromatic components that derive from grape handling, fermentation and the maturation of the wine. You can even refer to the smell of fermentation, or detect wine faults (such as too much sulphur dioxide) yet the more desirable aromas include roasting or toasting and vanilla from oak barrel aging. The tertiary aromas are those that develop with bottle aging, a typical example being the development of the petrol note with maturing Riesling. Again, wine faults may also be included, the most common being cork taint"

    aroma
    scent

    A tasting description referring to the the aromas smelt through the nose.

    aroma wheel
    a list of all the aroma and flavour compounds found in wine

    The aroma wheel is a comprehensive list of all aromas and flavours found in wine, such as fruity, floral, plant-like or herbaceous (vegetive), spicy notes, with a hint of caramel, smoky or burnt aromas, soil notes and microbiological aromas.

    aromatic
    intensive impressions of the bouquet

    Describing a wine with a pronounced bouquet and intensive taste (e.g. Traminer, Gelber Muskateller).

    aromatic
    delicate and subtle

    Wine with a fine and delicate floral aromas or of flowers are described as being aromatic.

    arrested (fermentation)
    interrupted (fermentation)

    The deliberate interruption or termination of the fermentation, giving the wine retained natural residual sugar.

    ash
    residue left when something is burned

    The total residue and non-burnable elements (e.g. traces of minerals) of a wine.

    astringent

    A wine with astringent tannins, or that is tannic, leaving a drying, often bitter taste, usually found in red wine.

    Ausbruch
    style of classified sweet wine

    Ausbruch is the name for a high quality Austrian noble sweet wine made from botrytis cinerea infected grapes, and is a speciality from the town of Rust in Burgenland. The Austrian wine law states a minimum must weight is 27° Klosterneuburg Must Weight Scale (KMW).

    Auslese
    style of classified sweet wine

    Auslese is the name for a high Austrian quality wine made from fully ripened grapes The Austrian wine law states that the minimum must weight is 21° (KMW) (approx 105 oechsle).

    Austrian Wine Academy

    The Austrian Wine Academy (Weinakademie Österreich) is a non-profit organisation established in 1991, and is a subsidary company of the AWMB. It offers its own semianr and further education programme for all those interested in wine, and is a recognised national and international teaching institute. The Wine Academy centres are located in Rust and Krems, and seminars are held across Austria by qualified partners. The four tier educational programme begins with the Foundation Seminar, Advanced Certificate I and II, along with an international part, the Diploma in Wine and Spirits (Title in Austria being the Weinakademiker), that is the prerquisite for the Master of Wine educational programme.

    awards
    usually official wine awards conducted in wine competitions

    A significant wine award competition in Austria is the SALON Österreich Wein, and these wines are primarily selected by the regional wine tasting committees. The Austrian Wine Challenge (AWC) is one of the world's most successful wine competitions, with over 10,000 entries. The prize-giving ceremony takes place annually in Vienna's City Hall (Rathaus).

    AWMB
    Austrian Wine Marketing Board

    The AWMB is short for the Austrian Wine Marketing Board, which has the task of strategically supporting, coordinating and maintaining quality and sales in the Austrian wine industry. This is achieved by ongoing image work and folder, sales support and incentives as well as a proactive press and public relations campaign.

  • BA
    Beerenauslese

    Beerenauslese is the name for a high Austrian quality wine made from overripe grapes The Austrian wine law states that the minimum must weight is 25° KMW (approx 125 oechsle).

    Babo (person)
    Founder of the Austrian viticultural school

    Baron August Wilhelm von Babo was the founder and first director of the school of oenology in Klosterneuburg (1860), and inventor of the Klosterneuburg Must Weight Scale (KMW) as a measurement for must weight.

    Bacchus
    Roman god of wine

    Roman God of Wine. The second meaning refers to the varietal (German crossing).

    back label

    in contrast to the often eye-catching front label, the back label is normally used to visibly list the legally required declarations.

    backbone

    describes a wine with a powerful body, sufficient extract and ample acidity

    bag in box
    packaging form for wine

    Anglicised term for a wine or other beverage packaged in an inert, plastic bag and a reinforced cardboard box.

    balance
    harmonious

    A tasting description to denote harmony, usually referring to balanced alcohol, residual sugars or acidity levels.

    balanced
    harmonious

    Harmony of fruit, sweetness, alcohol, acidity and tannins.

    balsamic
    subtle aromas

    A tasting description for subtle aromas, that are soft and supple, reminicent of balsamic oil.

    Balthasar
    term for a 12 litre wine bottle

    The Balthasar is a large format bottle capable of holding 12 litres of wine, or sixteen 75cl bottles.

    banderole, control seal
    the red-white-red bottle capsule

    The most visible sign of Austrian quality wine is the red-white-red flag on the top of the bottle capsule or screwcap closure. Traditionally, this signal for quality was a paper sticker, but nowadays, it is incorporated into the capsule or screwcap design.

    bar
    measurement of pressure

    The measurement of pressure (1 bar = 14.5psi) in a bottle of Champagne or sparking wine.

    bar
    bar or room, where wine is poured
    barrel size
    capacity of an oak barrel

    There are a wide range of barrel sizes used in Austria, and many traditional sizes that are hardly found any more. Producers tend to prefer the small oak barrel (225 litres) for high quality wines.

    Barrique
    small oak barrel

    The term for a small oak barrel, usually with a capacity of 225 litres, which affects the taste profile of the wine with differing grades of toasting and natural aeration. The term 'Barrique' also denotes larger barrels, such as the burgundian 300 litre. Wine matured in oak barrels are often recognisable by roasting aromas, as well as vanilla, chocolate, cocoa, coconut, leather and smoked bacon.

    Base wine
    base wine for Sekt and sparkling wines

    The term for a wine that has fermented dry, and is the basis for the second fermentation in the production of sparkling wines.

    bentonite
    form of clay

    Bentonite is a montmorillonite clay used as a fining agent for wines.

    benzaldehyde
    wine fault

    A tasting term depicting the aroma and taste of bitter almonds, (a wine fault caused by unsuccessful blue fining).

    Bergland
    Wine-growing region

    Austrian wine-producing region, that include all vineyard areas in the federal states of Upper Austria, Salzburg, Carinthia, Tyrol and Vorarlberg.

    biodynamic viticulture
    a recognised form of organic viticulture

    This refers to the specific form of organic viticulture following anthrosophist Rudolf Steiner's strict guidelines, with rigorous verification by a recognised body, for example, Demeter.

    Bioveritas
    Association of organic wine producers

    The association of Austrian organic wine producers.

    bitter
    tannic, phenolic

    Describes a bitter or astringent wine, often caused by the grape pips, stalks, or stress from sunshine with white wines.

    bitter taste
    undesired note

    The Austrian diminutive form describing an unpleasant, bitter taste in wine.

    black or bunch rot
    infection of the grape

    Black or bunch rot is a grape condition, when unripe grapes are infected with the destructive form of Botrytis Cinerea (as a result of hail, vineyard pests or bad weather).

    blackcurrants

    Denotes the essence or liquor of blackcurrants, and cassis is a popular description for the aroma of Cabernet Sauvignon wines.

    blanc de blancs
    base wine for Sekt and Champagne

    The French description for 'white of whites‘, and usually refers to Champagne and sparkling base wine, that is only produced using white wine grapes.

    blanc de noirs
    base wine for Champagne

    The French description for ‘white of blacks‘, and usually refers to Champagne and sparkling base wine, that is only produced using black grapes that are pressed gentley to produce a clear must.

    Blauburger
    crossing of Blauer Portugieser x Blaufränkisch

    Colour-rich new crossing from Blauer Portugieser x Blaufränkisch by Prof. Dr. Fritz Zweigelt from Klosterneuburg. The red varietal Blauburger is cultivated in all of Austria‘s wine growing regions, and although rather bland as a varietal, it has become an ideal blending wine.

    Blauburgunder
    member of the Pinot varieties

    The Pinot Noir is an ancient variety from the Pinot family of varieties, and is a natural crossing of Pinot Meunier x Traminer. This highly regarded, classic variety is recognisable by its pale, often light brown shade of colour, with an aroma reminiscent of rowan berries, almonds, marzipan and sweet chestnuts. This international variety is largely cultivated in the cooler vineyards in the Thermenregion (e.g. Burgundermacher wine producers).

    Blauer Burgunder
    member of the Pinot varieties

    The Pinot Noir is an ancient variety from the Pinot family of varieties, and is a natural crossing of Pinot Meunier x Traminer. This highly regarded, classic variety is recognisable by its pale, often light brown shade of colour, with an aroma reminiscent of rowan berries, almonds, marzipan and sweet chestnuts. This international variety is largely cultivated in the cooler vineyards in the Thermenregion (e.g. Burgundermacher wine producers).

    Blauer Portugieser
    Austrian red wine variety

    The Blauer Portugieser (synonym Vöslauer) was brought to Vöslau in the 18th Century. This uncomplicated red table wine with its soft tannins is still popular in the Weinviertel and the Thermenregion.

    Blauer Wildbacher
    Schilcher rosé wine

    The Blauer Wildbacher is at home in the Weststeiermark, yet today it is found planted in all three Styrian wine-growing regions. The wines that are rose-pink to onion-pink in colour are marketed as Schilcher. A main characteristic is the bouquet of blackcurrant and grassy notes, along with its racy, vibrant acidity. Ideal as a base wine for frizzante and sekt.

    Blauer Zweigelt
    Austrian red wine variety

    Its creater, Prof. Dr. Fritz Zweigelt, successfully crossed Blaufränkisch x St. Laurent in 1922, and paved the way for Austrian red wine history. Up until his death in 1964, the variety was known as Rotburger. Nowadays there are classic and fruity respresentatives of the wine, with cherry and berry aromas, as well as very ripe, extract rich top wines, that display feminine, fruity charm. With plantings of 13 percent of the total Austrian wine-growing region, this is by far the most planted and popular Austrian red wine variety.

    Blaufränkisch
    Austrian red wine variety

    This indigenous variety is at home in Burgenland, particularly in Mittelburgenland (DAC designation).  The wines display juicy fruit, herbaceous charm over searing acidity and gripping tannins. The characteristic aromas are cherry, sour cherry, blackberry and cinnamon. The indigenous Blaufränkisch is robust and coarse with intense depth of fruit character when young, yet the wine softens as it matures. Opulent examples are aged in oak barrels or are in blends.

    blend

    The French term describing the process of assembling wines into the final blend.

    blend
    the blending of different wines to create an end product

    Blending plays a central role in the vinification of red wines. The French term is cuvée, assemblage or mariage (marriage), and it is possible to blend varieties, vineyards, vintages or styles of wine.

    blind

    Not a clear wine, usually cloudy.

    blind tasting
    tasting of wines that are unknown

    The wines are tasted with the name undisclosed, so that the taster does not know the name or origin of the wine. The most impartial method of tasting and rating wine.

    Blue Fining
    fining, cleaning process

    A wine-making operation to eliminate any traces of heavy metals, such as copper or iron, from the wine.

    body

    Refers to a taste of weight, that is supported by alcohol, extract and sweetness.

    Botrytis Cinerea
    noble rot

    The benevolent form of noble rot when fully ripened grapes are covered in fungal spores, and a prerequisite for noble sweet dessert wines such as Beerenauslese, Ausbruch and Trockenbeerenauslese. If the grapes are unripe, this can lead to grey or bunch rot.

    bottle
    refers to a standard bottle size

    The Austrian description for a 75cl bottle, with the term bouteille coming from the French meaning bottle.

    bottle

    Virtually all wine bottles are made of glass. See also bottle sizes. The most common bottle formats in Austria are the tall Rhine or flute bottle, the Bordeaux bottle and the Burgundy bottle.

    bottle age

    The period of time that passes as the wine matures in the bottle.

    bottle fermentation
    method of producing sparkling wines

    The method of producing sparkling wine, also known as the Classic Method (méthode classique). The description méthode champenoise is not permitted outside of Champagne.

    bottle shock
    the condition of the wine after bottling

    Immediately after bottling, the taste of the wine is often impaired, but the wines usually settle and recover after a few weeks.

    bottle shock
    the condition of the wine after bottling

    Immediately after bottling, the taste of the wine is often impaired, but the wines usually settle and recover after a few weeks.

    bottle sizes

    EU legislation for wine permits the following bottle sizes: bottle (0.75l), half bottle (0.375l) Piccolo (0.2l), litre bottle (1.0l), double-litre bottle (2.0l), Magnum (1.5l), double Magnum or Jeroboam (3.0l), Rehoboam (4.5l), Methusalem or Impériale (6.0l), Salmanasar (9.0l), Bathasar (12.0l), Nebukadnezar (15.0l).

    bottle stink
    wine fault

    The common term for slightly unpleasant aromatic components, such as the subtle smell of foul eggs, brettanomyces, Burgundy or Bordeaux stink, and so on, yet these are not always considered to be wine faults.

    bottling
    the wine is bottled

    This term refers to the bottle. The wine is filled into the bottle, usually during a sterilisation process.

    bouquet
    the aromas of a wine

    The description for the aromas acknowledged when smelling the wine, giving an overall impression of the aromas of the wine.

    bouquet
    aroma compounds

    The description for the aromas acknowledged when smelling the wine, giving an overall impression of the aromas of the wine.

    Bouvier
    white wine variety in Austria

    Austrian white wine variety usually produced for must, the partially fermented Sturm wine and young wines, as well as noble sweet classed wines. The wines display a subtle bouquet, and are aromatic and soft.

    brandy
    alcoholic beverage based on wine

    Alcoholic beverage produced by distilling the grape marc.

    brandy wine
    base wine used for the production of brandy

    Wine that may only be used for distillation and for the production of brandy.

    brandy-like
    high in alcohol

    The taste sensation of alcohol is dominant, often found in thin wines that have been chaptalized.

    breathe
    aeration

    The process of the wine being allowed to breathe and the aromas develop, by opening the bottle and pouring out a glass, so that the air can circulate in the neck and shoulder of the bottle.

    brettanomyces

    Sometimes called Brett, this refers to the yeast genera found occasionally in grapes and occurs during the fermentation and maturation of red wine. Characteristics are aromas similar to a stable or sweaty horse. In small quantities, Brett can be pleasant, yet if too intensive, is regarded as being a wine fault.

    bright

    Describes a bright, reflective wine with an exceptionally clear colour.

    brilliant

    Refers to the bright and brilliant colour of wine.

    brix scale
    unit of measurement

    Scale of measurement for the must weight, quite widespread in the United States, and identical with the Balling scale of measurement.

    brut
    dry

    Taste description for a sparkling wine or Champagne with a maximum residual sugar content of 15 grams per litre.

    bud
    bud, or first shoot of a vine
    bud
    bud

    Bud of a grapevine.


    budding
    the first buds

    The initial opening of the buds and first leaves in Spring (usually in April).

    bunch rot
    form of grey rot

    This is a wine fault if unripe grapes are infected. If the grapes have reached physiological ripeness, this is the prerequisite for noble sweet wine, such as Beerenauslese, Ausbruch and Trockenbeerenauslese.

    bung

    The closure of the oak barrel, which is made of either wood, silicon or glass.

    Burgenland
    generic wine-growing region

    generic wine-growing region in the eastern part of Austria.

    Burgundy bottle
    shape of the typical Burgundy wine bottle

    This bottle form originates from Burgundy, where ist is the most common shape. It is popular in Austria for Pinot varieties.

    burning sulphur

    Years ago, oak barrels were conserved or sterilised by lighting sulphur inside the barrel and the SO2 emitted acted as a cleaning agent.

    Buschenschank
    Heuriger or Buschenschank wine tavern

    Another term for the 'Heuriger‘, where wines from own produce are served along with one or more simple dishes.

    bush vine cultivation
    The old form of vine training, without a trellis and low to the ground.
    buttery

    Wine tasting term describing the butter-like or creamy texture of a wine, particularly after MLF.

  • C-O-S
    Roman form of wine tasting

    Roman formula for the sensoric wine tasting procedure, based on the colour (eye), odour (nose) and sapour (taste).

    Cabernet Franc
    red wine variety

    Cabernet Franc is an age-old variety that probably originates from a wild vine. The variety became an acknowledged Austrian quality wine variety in 1986. The wines generally display herbaceous notes, pepper pods and cassis fruit characters.

    Cabernet Sauvignon
    red wine variety

    Cabernet Sauvignon is an old Bordeaux variety, that took Austria by storm in the 1980's. If not fully ripe, the wines display unripe notes of green pepper, stinging nettle and cassis, yet with fully mature grapes, the results are of more spice and chocolate. Ther variety always has notable, gripping tannins and are usually aged in small oak barrels. Most Cabernet Sauvignon is blended with Merlot or Blaufränkisch, or other red wine varieties.

    Cabinet
    Kabinett

    Old term for Kabinett wines.

    calcareous soil

    The type of soil was once on the shores of the primordial ocean. In Austria, calcareous soils are found on the Nussberg in Vienna, as well as in the Thermenregion, on the Leithaberg and in certain sites in the Südsteiermark, and give white wines mineral notes.

    capsule
    refers to the decorative or protective capsule on the top of a wine bottle
    capsule cutter

    A useful aid in cleanly cutting the capsule off the bottle (usually of plastic, aluminium, tin foil or zinc).

    carafe
    decanter

    A glass bottle that comes in different bulbous forms, and is used in serving, aerating and decanting wine.

    caramelised
    taste impression

    Sweet aroma and flavour, reminiscent of malt-flavoured sweets.

    carbon dioxide / CO2

    The common term for carbonic acid (carbon dioxide), which is formed during the alcoholic fermentation and the malolactic fermentation. Due to the fact that fermenting gases are heavier than air, it can be a potential health hazardous in the cellar during fermentation. CO2 is a colourless gas often added to white wines during bottling to enhance freshness. In the production of sparkling wine, carbon dioxide is produced during the second fermentation and is responsible for its characteristic mousseux.

    carbonic acid (carbon dioxide)

    The common term for carbonic acid (carbon dioxide), which is formed during the alcoholic fermentation and the malolactic fermentation. Due to the fact that fermenting gases are heavier than air, it can be a potential health hazardous in the cellar during fermentation. CO2 is a colourless gas often added to white wines during bottling to enhance freshness. In the production of sparkling wine, carbon dioxide is produced during the second fermentation and is responsible for its characteristic mousseux.

    carbonic maceration
    a fermenting process triggered by enzymes

    A fermenting process triggered by enzymes with whole, healthy grapes. This wine-making operation is particularly popular when producing young and fruity red wines.

    carbonic maceration
    carbonic maceration

    A fermenting process using whole, healthy grapes that are placed in an enclosed (steel) tank and covered with carbon dioxide and refrigerated. After a few days, the fermention process is triggered by enzymes within the individual grapes. This outcome is young and fruity red wines with low tannins and colour intensity. This method is usually used in the production of Beaujolais Nouveau, Pinot Noir and Zweigelt.

    Carnuntum
    Weinbaugebiet

    The treasures of the historic Carnuntum vineyards are remarkable – especially the Zweigelt-based red wines that reflect regional typicity. The red wine assets range from lush and fruity Rubin Carnuntum to powerful cuvées. read more

    cartridge filter
    specific and very fine membrane filter that is highly effective in sterile filtration

    A cartridge filter is used in the wine-making operation of filtration, or to remove undesired, cloudy particles from the must or wine. The following types of filters are common; depth or sheet filtration, kieselguhr, membrane or cartridge filters, rotary drum vacuum filter, pressure leaf filter, centrifugation, cross flow or tangential filtration.

    cask or barrel
    vessel made of oak

    Vessel made of oak for the fermentation and maturation of wine.

    Cassis
    taste of blackcurrants

    Denotes the essence or liquor of blackcurrants, and cassis is a popular description for the aroma of Cabernet Sauvignon wines.

    cellar

    Mostly subterrenean room used for the storage of wine.

    Cellar Door Sales

    The purchase of wine directly from the producer. This accounts for some 30% of all wine sold in Austria.

    cellar mould
    typical mould found in wine cellars

    Dark, almost black mould that occurs in wine cellars with high himidity, and thrives on the floating wine elements and regulates the humidity.

    cellar temperature

    The ideal temperature for storing wine lies between 8°C and 14°C. The lower the temperature, the slower the wine will develop, and likewise, if the temperature is too high, or there is a significant change in temperature, then there is the risk of oxidation.

    cellaring potential
    a reasonable estimate of the length of time, that a wine remains pleasurable to drink

    A reasonable estimate of the length of time, that a wine remains pleasurable to drink, and can be extremely subjective and individual. Yet the main factors are alcohol, residual sugar, acidity, tannin and most significantly, the maturity of the grapes.

    centrifuge
    a piece of equipment that rotates, removing particles and deposits in must or wine

    Also known as a separator.

    ceremony for the new vintage
    a ceremony held on 11 November (Patron Saint Martin's Day), where the new vintage is blessed

    Following the blessing of the wine, the young wine may be opened, toasted to and tasted.

    chalk
    calcium compounds

    The common term form for calcium compounds, for example carbonic chalk (calcium carbonate), used for the deacidification of wine.

    chambrer
    bring the wine to room temperature

    The French verb that describes the careful warming of the red wine, bringing it to room temperature (chambre = room).

    Champagne
    colloquial name for Champagne

    Also a term used for Sekt or sparkling wine.

    Chaptalization
    Legal addition of sugar (from sugar beet)

    The Chaptalization of wine, as defined by the addition of sugar beet (sucrose) to the grape must, to increase the alcohol strength of the wine. The maximum permitted limit for chaptalization of Austrian Quality Wine is 3.4kg of sucrose to 100 lites of grape must, which equates to a maximum increase of 2% alcohol by volume.

    chaptalization
    addition of sugar

    The Chaptalization of wine, as defined by the addition of sugar beet (sucrose) to the grape must, to increase the alcohol strength of the wine. The maximum permitted limit for chaptalisation of Austrian Quality Wine is 3.4kg of sucrose to 100 lites of grape must, which equates to a maximum increase of 2% alcohol by volume.

    chaptalization
    addition of sugar beet

    The Chaptalisation of wine, as defined by the addition of sugar beet (sucrose) to the grape must, to increase the alcohol strength of the wine. The maximum permitted limit for chaptalisation of Austrian Quality Wine is 3.4kg of sucrose to 100 lites of grape must, which equates to a maximum increase of 2% alcohol by volume.

    Chaptalization
    chaptalization

    Jean -Antoine Claude Chaptal, the French chemist and Home Secretary in Napoleons government, discovered the method of increasing the alcohol level of a wine by the addition of dried sugar (from sugar beet) to the must. Chaptalization is named after him.

    character
    style

    The character or style of a wine, the dependant factors being variety, vineyard, climate and vinification.

    Chardonnay
    known also as Morillon

    This globe trotting variety is matured either in the classic style in stainless steel or in the more international style with malolactic fermentation and barrel maturation. With classic Chardonnay, the pip fruit tends to dominate, over elegant and herbaceous flavours. When aged in oak barrels, the fruit characters are enhanced with creamy and buttery notes. Chardonnay is also ideal for the production of noble sweet wines. The variety is cultivated in all Austrian wine-growing regions and is also known as the Morillon in the Steiermark.

    Charmat method
    method of producing sparkling wines

    See also Methode Charmat. In this sparkling wine-making operation, the second fermentation occurs in a pressure tank, and is also known as the tank method.

    chlorosis
    ailing condition of the vine

    Chlorosis is a vine illness or condition, that leads to the yellowing of the leaves as the production of chlorophyl is inhibited. Causes are often insufficient levels of iron on lime-rich soils or poor drainage.

    church windows, (tears, legs)
    the common wine tasting term describing the viscosity of a wine

    The common wine tasting term describing the wine's viscosity, as these "church windows" run slowly down the inside surface of the glass. This is caused by the contents of the wine, such as glycerine, extract and sugar. The more pronounced the legs, the higher the concentration and extract of the wine.

    Circle of Ruster Ausbruch producers
    wine producers association for the heritage of Ruster Ausbruch

    An association of producers for the production, quality, protection and heritage of Ausbruch sweet wines in the town of Rust.

    citric acid

    One of the most important acids, that only occurs in small quantities in the grapes or wine. If a wine should lack natural acidity, the EU permits the addition of citric acid in the climate zones B and C.

    classic
    label description for Austrian wine

    This is the permitted description for a wine style, but not a legal term. These are usually wines with medium alcohol levels that display varietal characters and no lor sublte aromas of oak barrel maturation.

    classic grape varieties

    The Austrian classic grape varieties are Grüner Veltliner, Riesling, Weissburgunder, Blauer Zweigelt, Blaufränkisch and so on.

    classification
    classification or system of designation for the origin with hierachical structure

    Classification or system of designation for the origin of wine with hierachical structure. EU wine legislation classifies the following categories, Table Wine without origin (Wein), wine with Protected Geographical Indication (Landwein) as well as Quality wines produced in specified regions (Qualitätswein). The Österreichischen Traditionsweingütern association also have their own vineyard classification.

    classique
    label description for Austrian wine

    This is the permitted description for a wine style, but not a legal term. These are usually wines with medium alcohol levels that display varietal characters and no or subtle aromas of oak barrel maturation.

    clay
    a type of soil that retains moisture, that prevails in Mittelburgenland

    A type of soil that retains moisture, that prevails in Mittelburgenland. The soil is one of the three natural quality factors in viticulture, along with the vineyard site and the microclimate. There are divided into three soil horizons, A, B, and C. The following types of soils prevail in Austria; loess, sand, loam/marl/clay, primary rock, shale, limestone, brown earth, black earth and basalt.

    clean
    a clean wine

    Describes a wine without any negative taste.

    clean

    Describes a clean and pure wine without any aromatic or taste fault.

    clear
    clear and bright

    A bright and clear wine.

    clear, bright

    A completely clear and bright wine.

    climate
    the total of all weather-related elements

    The term climate refers to the sum of the influences and elements of the weather, such as temperature, sunshine hours, rainfall, amongst other factors, that occur over a longer period of time, as opposed to short term or current weather patterns. We differentiate between the macroclimate (the large climatic zones), the mesoclimate (climatic influence of the individual states or regions), and the microclimate (the local cliamte in the single-vineyards or sites). Austria has three major climatic zone, these being the continental climate, the Pannonian climate and the Mediterranean climate.

    clone
    the resulting offspring by asexual reproduction of a living being

    A clone is the resulting offspring of a grape vine by asexual reproduction, and is genetically identical to its parent. Nevertheless, mutations of a variety do occur over time, and in Austria, the Viticultural School in Klosterneuburg is particularly active in this field.

    closed

    Restrained wine without clearly recognisable aromatic characters, often the case with young, high quality wines, or wines shortly after the bottling (bottle shock), and the wine usually improves with aeration.

    closure

    Alongside the traditional natural cork closure, there is also a wide range of alternative closures available on the market, which have appeared in recent years. These are the screwcap closures, glass closures, plastic cork closures, agglomerate corks and combination corks (agglomerate with two layers of natural cork), as well as the crown cork or cap closure.

    cloudiness

    Refers to a wine that is not (yet) bright and clear, or a wine that has gone hazy.

    cloudy

    A wine fault, when the wine is cloudy or hazy, with either white, black or brown curd-like floating matter.

    cold fermentation
    microbiological decomposition of organic matter

    The alcoholic fermentation converts the available sugars in the grape must into alcohol and carbon dioxide, with brewer's yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) as its catalyst. During this process, heat is produced, along with carbon gases, that need to be released. (Grape must + yeasts = alcohol + carbon dioxide + heat).

    cold maceration
    cooling of the grapes during the maceration to below 18°C

    Cold maceraction or cold soak is the cooling of the grapes during the maceration to below 18°C, thus preventing the fermentation and the process helps to draw out the aromas, colour extract and tannins (particularly with red wines).

    cold stabilsation
    important wine-making operation during fermentation

    Important wine-making operation during fermentation, with the purpose of controlling the fermentation or arresting the fermentation (particularly with white wines), but also for the removal of tartrate crystals (cold stabilisation). There are various methods used for cooling the grapes, must or wine.

    collective vineyard site
    a large vineyard area

    This refers to a large vineyard area that is often shared by a large number of neighbouring producers, and are situated within a wine-growing region or commune. The character of the wines is usually similar, and although the term Grosslage is less common in Austria than it is in Germany, there are examples in the Wachau (Frauenweingarten), Weinviertel (Matzner-Hügel, Traisental (Traismaurer Weinberge, Neusiedlersee-Hügelland (Vogelsang) Mittelburgenland (Goldbachtal), Wagram (Klosterneuburg), and Vienna (Nussberg).

    colour

    In wine tasting, we differentiate between the depth and the shade of the colour. With red wines, the core and the hue (edge) are also considered. Generally, white wine gains a darker shade with bottle age, and red wine becomes lighter over time.

    complex

    A wine that displays an array of aromas and flavours.

    complex

    describes a wine with a wide spectrum of aromas.

    concentrated grape must

    Concentrated grape must alternative to sugar beet (sucrose) for use in chaptalization. In some EU countries, Rectified Concentrated Grape Must (RCGM) is used, see chaptalization.

    connoisseur
    wine expert

    French term for a wine expert

    controlled fermentation
    microbiological decomposition of organic matter

    The alcoholic fermentation converts the available sugars in the grape must into alcohol and carbon dioxide, with brewer's yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) as its catalyst. During this process, heat is produced, along with carbon gases, that need to be released. (Grape must + yeasts = alcohol + carbon dioxide + heat).

    cool, temperature controlled fermentation
    temperature controlled microbiological decomposition of organic matter

    A temperature-controlled or cool fermentation is an important measure in quality, particularly for white wines. At a temperature of 18° to 20° Celsius, the fermentation process is slower and more consistent, with reduced loss of alcohol and aromas. This is achieved by the continuous stream of flowing water along the cooling hoses in the tanks or casks, or by refrigerated in double-skin tanks.

    cooper
    constructor of oak barrels
    copper sulphate
    the product used for treating wines with hydrogen sulphide odour or the smell of rotten eggs

    The product used for treating wines with hydrogen sulphide odour or the smell of rotten eggs.

    cordon spur training
    type of vine training system

    Internationally widespread form of vine training system (with wires) with a specific method of pruning.

    cork taint
    a wine fault that displays an undesirable mouldy, musty smell and taste

    A wine fault that displays an undesirable mouldy, musty smell and taste. The cause is the presence of trichloroanisole (TCA), and we differentiate between the classic (unmistakable) cork taint, and a subtle taste of cork, and the latter often suppresses the fruit of the wine and can be difficult to detect.

    corked
    cork taint

    The German word "stoppelt" refers to a wine with cork taint.

    corks
    type of bottle closure

    Natural bottle closure made from the bark of the cork oak. Natural cork has the benefit of being flexible, allows a certain amount of airflow, and generally has a positive image. The disadvantages are the risk of cork taint, the high price, its susceptibility to the cork moth as well as its limited lifespan. Further types of cork closures are, amongst other forms, the agglomerate cork and the combination cork.

    coulure
    A deficiency that causes the failure of grapes to develop after flowering, after cool, damp or very hot weather during flowering (usually beginning of June).

    The results are loose-berried grapes and reduced yield. The varieties that are particularly susceptible to coulure are e.g Muskat Ottonel, Neuburger, St. Laurent.

    crisp

    Taste impression for quite an acidic, dry, usually fruity and racy wine.

    crossing

    Method in vine breeding, with the intention of creating a new variety (cultivated vines) that has more positive characteristics and increased hardiness in the new crossing (new cultivation).

    Cru
    prime vineyard site

    Cru is the French term for the single vineyard or classed growth.

    crushing

    The grapes are usually crushed after destemming, to ease the flow of juice.

    Cryoextraktion
    wine-making operation

    This is the process of mechanically freezing healthy grape material by refrigeration, in order to produce (a form of) ice wine.

    cult wine

    High quality, predominantly expensive wine, that is produced in small quantites from renowned producers.

    cultivated, selected yeast

    To reduce the risk of wine faults caused by yeasts, selected yeast strains, also known as cultured yeasts in a dried powder form, are frequently used to guarantee a speedy and clean fermentation.

    Cuvee
    blend

    The French term that describes the blending of wines (cuve is French for enclosed vat or barrel), and the wine blended can be from different varieties, vineyards or vintages.

  • DAC
    Districtus Austriae Controllatus, regionally typical designation

    DAC stands for ”Districtus Austriae Controllatus”. It literally means “protected Austrian declaration of origin”- The DAC is a designation for regionally typical Austrian quality wines, where the region itself, rather than the variety, is more significant. There are currently eight DAC-designated regions acknowledged by the Ministry of Agriculture. The Weinviertel started off run of DAC-regions in 2003 with its regionally typical Grüner Veltliner. It has been followed by Mittelburgenland DAC (Blaufränkisch), Traisental DAC (Grüner Veltliner and Riesling), Kremstal DAC (Grüner Veltliner and Riesling), Kamptal DAC (Grüner Veltliner and Riesling), Leithaberg DAC (white and red), as well as Eisenberg DAC (Blaufränkisch), Neusiedlersee DAC (Zweigelt) and Wiener Gemischter Satz DAC.

    deacidification
    correcting or reducing the level of acidity

    In the case of unripe grapes, the must can contain searing acidity levels that will affect the balance of the wine. The process of deacidification is possible using either one the following methods; simple deacidification with calcium carbonate (chalk), double salt deacidification, fine deacidification (for tartrate crystals) as well as the malolactic fermentation.

    decanter
    carafe

    wine is decanted into a carafe

    decanting basket

    To ease the process of decanting, or to avoid touching the bottle, a decanting basket is often used.

    declaration of origin

    Declaration of geographical origin of a wine or grapes, from which a wine is produced. The EU differentiates between wines without protected geografical indication (previously Table wine), wines with protected geographical indication (Land wine) and Quality Wines Produced in Specified Regions (Quality Wine). In Austria, wines with regional typicity that display characteristics of their origin, are entrenched in the DAC philosophy, see DAC.

    deep

    A sensory term for a complex wine with persistence in aroma and taste.

    deep colour (of white wine)
    intensive colour

    Tasting description for the colour of white wine, and refers to very mature or old wine, or wines that are susceptible to oxidation. Old wines can also have this colour as a result of too little sulphur.

    degorge
    removal of the lees

    Sparkling wine-making operation used to remove the lees in the traditional method.

    degustation
    wine tasting

    The qualified analysis and evaluation of the wine based on the sensoric observation, and judging the eye, nose and mouth of a wine, and often giving a score or tastng note.

    delicate
    subtle

    A wine that displays soft and delicate aromas is often described as so.

    depth

    A sensory term for a complex wine with persistence in aroma and taste.

    dessert wine
    wine with praedicate

    A designated wine category in Austrian wine law. The grapes must fulfil strict requirement and are classified according to their must weight. Spätlese has for example a minimum must weight of 19°KMW, Auslese (21°KMW), Strohwein (grapes dried on straw mats) Eiswein (ice wine) and Beerenauslese all require 25°KMW. The Ausbruch requires 27°KMW and Trockenbeerenauslese requires at least 30°KMW. The residual sugar of these wines may only derive from the fermentation time, either by deliberatley arresting fermentation or through its natural end, and by no means may the wine be sweetened by Süssreserve (grape must).

    destem

    The destemming is the removal of the grapes from their stems or stalks prior to pressing.

    destemmed
    grapes that have been separated from the stems or stalks

    The term refers to grapes that have been separated from the stems or stalks.

    destemmer
    piece of equipment used to remove the grape from its stem

    often combined with a crusher

    destemming
    removing the grape berry from the stalk or stem

    destemming is the removal of the stems or stalks prior to pressing

    destemming

    Destemming is the removal of the stems or stalks prior to pressing or crushing.

    developed
    mature

    A wine tasting term that refers to a mature wine that is developed, or at its best.

    developed aromas

    The tasting term for (over) developed aromas in a maturing wine. See also petrol, tired, and tertiary aromas.

    development
    maturity

    This term refers to the maturation process of the wine, from the winery as well as its continued development in the bottle.

    digestive
    a drink after a meal

    An alcoholic berverage that is served after a meal, to aid digestion. Usually a spirit is taken as a digestive.

    Dionysus
    Greek god

    The Greek god of wine and viticulture (synonymous with the Roman god Bacchus).

    disguised

    Describes a wine with a touch of an untypical, mouldy off-tone, and a term often used to describe a wine that has subtle, disguised cork taint.

    Doppler
    2 litre bottle

    Once the most common bottle size for an Austrian wine, the 2 litre bottle was often coined the “Austro-Magnum".

    Dosage
    sparkling wine-making term

    This is a term from sparkling wine production, and refers to the dosage of wine that will define the residual sugar of the sparkling wine following degorging. In the traditional method, we decide between the liqueur de tirage (a fine cane or sugar beet and yeast mixture to instigate the second fermentation) and the liqueur d'expedition (the liquid sugar dosage added post fermentation to give the wine its character and balance), that is often the producer's secret recipe.

    double magnum
    size of a bottle

    A wine bottle with a capacity of 3 litres, also known as a Jeroboam for Sparkling wines and Champagne.

    double-digging
    method of loosening the soil in the vineyard
    downy mildew
    fungal disease

    Also known as peronospora.

    dregs
    sediment

    This term comes from the French meaning the dregs, or the deposit that develops in the bottle of most red wine with age. It comprises of yeast particles and colour extract.

    dregs
    sediment

    This term comes from the French meaning the dregs, or the deposit that develops in the bottle of most red wine with age. It comprises of yeast particles and colour extract.

    drinking temperature

    Temperature plays a central role in the vinification (temperature of the fermentation), in the storage of wine (wine cellar temperature) and particularly in the restaurants. The pleasure of enjoying a wine is defined by the serving temperature and correct drinking temperature of the wine.

    drip irrigation
    artificial form of watering
    dry
    dry (taste)

    A term for sparkling wines that have a residual sugar between 17 and 35 grams per litre.

    dry extract

    Dry extract is a term frequently consulted as a parameter for judging the quality of wine (as sugar-free extract), and is the total sum of all extracts, less the residual, or unfermented sugar.

    dry stone terraces
    hand-crafted vineyard terraces, that are supported by dry-stone walls

    particular to the viticulture in the Wachau, see terraces.

    dry yeast

    To reduce the risk of wine faults caused by yeasts, selected yeast strains, also known as cultured yeasts in a dried powder form, are frequently used to guarantee a speedy and clean fermentation.

    dry, bitter taste

    Mouth-clenching taste of dryness and with high phenolics and tannins (particularly red wines), and very dry with marked acidity (in white wines).

    dull

    Describes a wine lacking brightness and freshness.

    dull

    Double meaning, and on the one hand, it refers to a dull-coloured wine without reflections; and on the other hand, describes a wine with gravely insufficient acidity or a wine with excessive sulphur (very tannic, dull and uninspiring tone, perceived most on the teeth).

  • e / E
    standard product term

    EU standard or norm size for a bottle or other form of packaging, such as e 0.75 l for a standard wine bottle.

    earthy
    earthy taste in the wine

    The general term for a wine with a noticable earthy note, either from loam or loess, but also used as a negative description for musty wines.

    Eisenberg / Südburgenland
    wine-growing region

    The smallest wine-growing area of Burgenland has plenty to offer. Its approx. 500 hectares of vineyards yield terroir wines par excellence. Especially the Blaufränkisch from the Eisenberg DAC. Read more

     

     

    Eisenberg DAC

    The DAC designation for the Blaufränkisch variety from the Südburgenland wine-growing region. The categories Klassik and Reserve are permitted effective from the 2008 vintage.

    elegant
    fine

    Describes an elegant, fine and balanced wine.

    en primeur

    The practice of buying wine futures, especially with expensive or sought after wines, that are sold when they are often still maturing in the barrel.

    enzyme
    proteins that catalyze biochemical reactions

    The enzymes catalyse chemical reactions, and all relevant enzymes occur naturally in the environment (in the grapes, the yeasts and bacteria). The enzymes may also be added to the must or wine.

    erosion
    natural movement of the soil affected by weather conditions

    Erosion may be caused by heavy rainfall, but is also the result of strong winds and gales.

    Erste Lage
    Regional single vineyard site classification

    The Austrian Association of Traditional Vintners (Österreichischen Traditionsweingüter) announced the classification of their single vineyard sites in 2010. The classic single vineyards (klassifizierte Lagen) and the top single vineyards (Erste Lagen) were defined. The symbol of these wines is visible on the wine label as a name and image brand, and association members within the valley of the Danube are entitled to use it (Kamptal, Kremstal, Traisental and Wagram).

    Essence
    concentrate

    The term Essenz is used in Austria to describe the high quality, noble sweet Essence wines, particularly Ruster Ausbruch. It gets its name from the Tokaji Eszencia.

    Estate bottling
    bottled by the producer

    This label term confirms that the grapes used in the production of the bottled wine were grown in the winery's property-owned vineyards.

    esters
    chemical compunds of alcohol and wine

    Chemical compunds of alcohol and acidity, that are recognisable in even the smallest of concentration. The most common ester found in wine is ethyl acetate.

    ethanol
    alcohol in wine

    Most common alcohol found in wine.

    ethyl alcohol
    ethanol, most common alcohol in wine
    EU Legislation for Wine

    Wein (previously known as Tafelwein, or table wine) is acknowledged in the EU wine legislation. The EU additionally have strict guidelines for the description of Quality Wine, to which other wine producing countries, like Austria, must adhere.

    EU wine-growing zones

    The term for the viticultural or wine-growing zones, as defined by the EU, which divide the European wine-growing regions up into zones, to regulate certain aspects of winemaking relating to their respective climates. Wine-growing zone A includes the northern wine-growing regions, zone B is the temperate climate that includes Austria and Zone C refers to the most southerly zone.

    extra brut

    EU legislation for wine allows a maximum of 6 g/l of residual sugar, for extra brut sparkling wines.

    extra dry

    EU legislation for wine allows a maximum of 6 g/l of residual sugar, for extra brut sparkling wines.

    extract
    the total of all non-volative solids in the wine

    The total of all non-volative solids in the wine, including sugar, colour, tannin, acidity, traces of minerals, protein, and glycerine. If the sugars were to be removed, we call this the sugar-free extract of the wine. The value is always given in grams per litre (g/l).

    extract sweetness

    The sweetness of a wine based on high extract values and maturity is often perceived differently than analytical tests.

  • Fan or bush
    branch

    The visual sign hung outside a Heuriger or Buschenschank wine tavern that is open.

    Fasslrutschen
    traditional custom of sliding down the side of the barrel

    The traditional custom of Fasslrutschen, or climbing up one broad side and sliding down the other broad side, occurs in the Stift Klosterneuburg monastery on 15 November each year, to celebrate the Name day of the Lower Austrian Patron Saint St. Leopold.

    fat

    Tasting description for plump, alcoholic wines, that lack supportive acidity and freshness, and without any defined taste.

    fat, broad

    Tasting description for an ample and broad, sometimes weighty wine, lacking gustatory finesse.

    fault

    A wine fault is defined as being caused by external factors that have a negative influence on the wine. Often uncleanliness or mistakes in wine-making operations can be the cause. Other faults include cork taint, mustiness, hydrogen sulphur, volatile acidity, premature aging and oxidation, taste of wet cardboard, astringency and medicinal note, amongst others. We generally regard a fault caused by micro organisms as a wine disease.

    faulty
    unclean

    Wines that are faulty and that have developed for the worse, mostly as a result of chemical influences or after contact with external or foreign matter.

    Federal wine inspectors

    Officials used by the Federal wine supervisory body for inspections during the harvest, especially with high quality or sweet wines.

    Federspiel
    quality wine category in the Wachau wine-growing region

    Federspiel refers to one of the three quality wine categories in the Wachau wine-growing region, in this case for an unchaptalized wine of at least 11.5% alcohol by volume, but no more than 12.5% alc/vol. The name ‘Federspiel‘ derives from falconary, a sport enjoyed for many centuries by the local landowning aristocracy (such as the Kuenrings). See also Steinfeder and Smaragd.

    feminine
    female

    The subjective term for a wine, and an association to the female sex, for example in blended red wines, such as Zweigelt and Merlot.

    fermentation

    The alcoholic fermentation converts the available sugars in the grape must into alcohol and carbon dioxide, with brewer's yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) as its catalyst. During this process, heat is produced, along with carbon gases, that need to be released. (Grape must + yeasts = alcohol + carbon dioxide + heat).

    fermentation
    microbiological decomposition of organic matter

    The alcoholic fermentation converts the available sugars in the grape must into alcohol and carbon dioxide, with brewer's yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) as its catalyst. During this process, heat is produced, along with carbon gases, that need to be released. (Grape must + yeasts = alcohol + carbon dioxide + heat).

    fermentation arrest
    interrupting or arresting the process of fermentation

    The deliberate or accidental interruption of the fermentation, that leaves the wine with a natural residual sugar content.

    fermentation on the skins

    A process of (red) wine fermentation, when the must interact with the grape skins during fermentation, resulting in added colour and tannins.

    fermentation tank

    The fermentation of wine usually occurs in stainless steel tanks, open top vats, oak casks and barrels, and earlier in cement vats or in glass carboys.

    fermented dry
    the sugars in the must have (virtually) all been converted into alcohol

    The sugars in the must have (virtually) all been converted into alcohol, and the term is common for dry wines, where the taste of residual sugar is not noticable.

    fermention vessel
    vat or vessel for red wine fermentation

    Generally, red wine ferments on the skins in vessels constructed of stainless steel or oak. These fermentation vessels are often equipped with temperature control regulators and technical aids (pumping over, punching down the cap, stirring elements, gas circulation), to keep the must moist and to achieve desired extraction of colour and tannin.

    film-forming yeasts
    wild yeasts

    A wild yeast film that develops on the surface of the wine, if the vat or vessel is not completely full, and results in a sherry-like aroma and oxidation.

    filter pad taste
    taste of wet cardboard

    A wet cardboard or filter pad taste that often derives from insufficient rinsing of the sheet filters. A wine fault that usually passes.

    filtration, to filter
    wine-making operation with must and wine to remove unwanted particles

    The following types of filters are common; depth or sheet filtration, kieselguhr, membrane or cartridge filters, rotary drum vacuum filter, pressure leaf filter, centrifugation, cross flow or tangential filtration.

    fine lees
    fungus

    After the first racking of the wine, or removing the wine from the gross lees and sediment, high quality wine is often left to rest on the fine lees, and with regular lees stirring (Bâtonnage), the wine becomes fuller and creamier.

    finesse
    elegance

    Describes a wine that is delicate, subtle with balance.

    fining
    fining is a wine-making operation

    Fining or clarification is the process of removing the heat-unstable proteins from the wine, to avoid clouds, hazes or other deposits to develop later in the bottle. The most common fining agent is bentonite.

    fining
    the wine-making operation of clarifying or stabilising the must or wine

    According to the wine law, producers are permitted to use the fining agents. These are removed from the wine at the end of the process, and well known methods are bentonite fining, egg white fining and gelatine fining.

    fining, clarification

    The removal of the deposits or sediment from the wine, either by static or mechanical means, and is also described as fining.

    finish
    aftertaste, finale

    A tasting term that refers to the aftertaste of the wine in the mouth, or the last impression of the wine, also known as persistence or length.

    first crop
    the first crop of a young vineyard

    The first crop of a young vineyard, normally in the third year of cultivation.

    First growth or cru wine
    high quality wine

    High quality wine.

    first wine of a new vineyard

    The first wine from the first crop of a new vineyard.

    flash pasteurisation

    Method used to sterilise grape juice, and a seldom procedure for wine.

    flat

    The description for a flat, rather unspectacular wine that lacks acidity.

    flat

    describes an empty, rather dull wine.

    flavonoid
    colour and flavour compounds

    The groups of colour and flavours that belong to the polyphenols.

    fleshy
    full-bodied

    Denotes a full-bodied, opulent wine.

    flint, flintstone
    mineral aroma

    The description of an aroma in a wine, that is reminiscent of two flintstones being vigorously rubbed against each other, giving off this mineral aroma.

    floral

    Floral or petal-like aromas.

    flower

    The wine has a floral or pleasant aroma of a flower.

    flowering
    the flowering period of the growing season

    The period of pollination, and the stage before the grapes begin to grow. In Austria, this usually occurs in June.

    flowering of the vine
    start of fertilisation

    Refers to the sexual reproduction of the vine, after which the berry fruit, or grapes begin to grow. The flowering period in Austria usually occurs in June.

    Flying Winemaker
    travelling winemaker and consultant

    The English term for a winemaker that flies to different wineries or regions to make or consult on winemaking.

    foreign taste

    Unclean, not adequate taste.

    fortified
    (spirit) added

    Wine, where brandy is added (fortified), is known as being fortified (e.g. Port).

    fortified wine

    The common English term for fortified wines, such as port, sherry, madeira and so on.

    fortified wine
    Usually sweet wines, that have a higher alcohol content following fortification.
    foxy
    wine aroma

    Individual and unmistakeable musky aroma of native American and inter-specific hybrid wine varieties, reminiscent of wet dog and forest floor.

    free run juice

    Refers to must that flows from the mash without active pressing.

    free run juice

    The first, free run must, that flows without active pressing.

    fresh

    Young and lively wine, with delicate carbon dioxide and a vibrant taste.

    Frizzante
    sparkling wine, from the French vin pétillant

    Italian description for a sparkling wine with at least 1.0 bar and a maximum of 1.5 bar (pressure).

    frosty taste
    wine fault

    Undesired aroma of ice sweets, or lecithin, and is a wine fault when unripe grapes freeze.

    fructose

    Fructose (fruit sugar) and glucose (grape sugar) are both found in wine and must.

    fruit

    Tasting term usually referring to the primary fruit aromas in wine.

    fruit sweetness

    The sweetness of a wine based on high extract values and maturity is often perceived differently than analytical tests.

    fruit texture
    fruit taste

    Often with high quality wine, there is an intense fruit taste on the palate, followed by a pleasant, textured aftertaste, that literally melts in the mouth.

    fruit wine

    Beverage similar to wine, made from fermented apple or pear must, and called Most in Austria.

    Fruiting variety
    the grape variety of a grafted vine

    The fruiting variety is the vine that grows above ground and is grafted onto a rootstock variety, that is resistant to Phylloxera. The fruiting variety ultimately defines the variety and produces the fruit.

    fruity

    Aroma and flavours that refer to the grape or fruit variety. We differentiate between pipfruit, stone fruit, berries, citrus fruit, tropical fruit, dried fruit and cooked fruit (compote).

    full of core, robust
    full-bodied

    Describes a full-bodied, opulent wine with supportive, balanced acidity.

    full-bodied
    powerful

    A rich and powerful wine.

    full-bodied

    A full-bodied, opulent wine, rich in extract and/or alcohol.

    full-bodied

    A well-rounded, opulent wine.

    full-bodied

    Powerful wine with an opulent body.

    fungicide
    pesticide

    Chemical pesticide employed against fungal diseases, such as downy mildew, powdery mildew and botrytis.

    Furmint
    late ripening white wine variety

    Furmint is predominantly planted in the Tokaji wine-growing region in Hungary, but it is also a niche product in the free town of Rust in Burgenland. Specialists produce dry quality white to honey-like dessert wines from this late-ripening variety.

    fusel oils / fusel alcohol
    by products of the alcoholic fermentation

    Fusel oils or alcohols are by products of the alcoholic fermentation, and are often considered poor quality products. It is a popular belief that fusel alcohols contribute to the 'hangover' the next day, as the body requires a long time breaking them down.

  • G'spritzter (White Wine Spritz)
    refreshing drink of equal measure of wine and mineral or soda water

    The Gespritzter or “G´spritzter“ is a quaffable, thirst-quenching Austrian White Wine Spritz, wine mixed with an equal measure of soda or sparkling mineral water, that is particularly favoured in the warm summer months. Due to its generally low alcohol content, the Gespritzter is an ideal aperitiv or easy drinking wine to pair with food. The mixture is generally 50/50, with the Sommerg´spritzter being prepared with a larger proportion of water.

    gamey

    Group of yeast strains that are predominant throughout the fermentation and evolve more intensively during the maturation of red wine. Brettanomyces is an aroma that is gamey, or reminiscent of stable or the sweaty saddle of a horse, and can be a positive impression when well intergrated. If the brettanomyces is too intensive, then it is considered a wine fault.

    Garage wine
    a rare, often sought after wine

    Refers to a high quality wine produced in minute quantites, that command high prices and usually come from small wine estates. The trend for garage wines began in the 1990s.

    gelatin
    protein

    The gelling agent used to clarify wine.

    Gemischter Satz (field blend)
    white wine speciality from Vienna

    The Gemischte Satz, or field blend, is quite the opposite if a blended wine (where the finished wines are blended together). Here different grape varieties are planted together in the same vineyard, and are all harvested, pressed, vinified and matured together. The Gemischte Satz has a long heritage in Wien (Vienna), and is currently enjoying a revival.

    getting together in the cellar
    a jovial gathering of people drinking wine in the cellar

    A jovial gathering of people drinking wine in the cellar, a popular weekend pastime when Austrian visit their preferred wine producer.

    Gewürztraminer
    white wine variety in Austria

    The Gewürztraminer is an ancient variety that has developed from a wild vine crossing, and is internationally widespread. There are three Traminer varieties in Austria, the Roter Traminer, Gelber Traminer and the Gewürztraminer, and at least one is cultivated in all of the wine-growing regions. The volcanic soils of the Südoststeiermark provide the optimum conditions for this aromatic variety. The wines display a pronounced range of aromas, often reminiscent of wild roses and citrus fruit. Traminer wines are usually soft and always rich in extract, with a delicate residual sugar that is in balance with a bitterness so typical of the variety. Traminer can also produce sweet wines with great aging potential.

    glass

    Wine glasses should ideally be tulip-shaped, clear, colourless and with thin glass and a relatively long stem, with which to hold the glass, as well as a sufficient capacity to swirl the wine and allow the aromas to evolve. Ideally, a white wine is filled to the halfway measure of the glass, and the red wine to a third.

    glycerine
    valuble natural alcohol

    Refers to the trivalent, valuble alcohol, that is a natural occurance, that is particularly noticable in alcohol rich wines as the 'legs' or 'tears' on the inside surface of the glass.

    Gold Medal
    High award or accolate

    As in sport, the gold medal is awarded at a wide range of wine competitions and tastings.

    Goldburger
    Austrian white wine variety, yet seldomly cultivated

    The Goldburger is a new crossing from the varieties Orange grape x Welschriesling (Riesling Orange), created by Prof. Dr. Fritz Zweigelt. Nowadays it is rarely cultivated, or used in sweet wine production.

    Gouais Blanc
    Gouais Blanc

    An old, no longer cultivated white wine variety with a particularly high yield. The English term comes from the French description of Gouais blanc, and its original name in German is Heunisch, and probably derives from the hunnic grape varieties.

    grafted wine
    scion

    The scion (of a European quality variety) is usually grafted onto the phylloxera-resistent rootstock by machine in the nursery, and then taken into a greenhouse.

    Grand Cru
    classed growth wine

    First or classed growth is the term usually reserved for French wines (e.g. in Burgundy), and in Austria, it is the description for a great, top quality wine.

    grape
    single grape berry

    The grape berry fruit, consisting of the skin, fruit flesh and pips.

    grape
    the fruit of a vine
    grape caterpillar (larvae of the European grapevine moth, and vine moth)
    vineyard pest

    The larvae or caterpillars of the European grapevine moth and the vine moth, and undesired vineyard pest.

    grape container
    Austrian term for a basket of grapes

    Traditional description for the large basket that was attached to one's back and used to transport the harvested grapes.

    grape juice or must aroma

    The sweet aroma or flavour of the (still) unfermented wine, that is reminiscent of grape juice.

    grape must concentrate
    the concentrate is used to thicken the must

    Grape must concentrate may be used to chaptalize or sweeten the wine.

    grape rot
    fungal disease that rots the grapes

    This is a wine fault if unripe grapes are infected. If the grapes have reached physiological ripeness, this is the prerequisite for noble sweet wine, such as Beerenauslese, Ausbruch and Trockenbeerenauslese.

    grape stem rot
    a form of grey rot

    This is a wine fault if unripe grapes are infected. If the grapes have reached physiological ripeness, this is the prerequisite for noble sweet wine, such as Beerenauslese, Ausbruch and Trockenbeerenauslese.

    grape stem rot

    The premature drying out of the grape stem, thus impeding the supply of nutrients to the grapes.

    grape varieties

    There are eleven ampelography groups sigificant in the Vitis vinifera subspecies. The main differences are between early and late ripening varieties. There are also categories for indigenous and international varieties. In Austria, the following grapes varietes are classified for the production of Quality Wine. White wine varieties: Bouvier, Chardonnay (Morillon), Frühroter Veltliner (Malvasier), Furmint, Goldburger, Grauer Burgunder (Pinot Gris, Ruländer), Grüner Veltliner (Weißgipfler), Jubiläumsrebe, Müller-Thurgau (Rivaner), Muskateller (Gelber Muskateller, Roter Muskateller), Muskat-Ottonel, Neuburger, Roter Veltliner, Rotgipfler, Sauvignon Blanc, Scheurebe (Sämling 88), Sylvaner (Grüner Sylvaner), Traminer (Gewürztraminer, Roter Traminer), Weißer Burgunder (Weißburgunder, Pinot Blanc, Klevner), Weißer Riesling (Riesling, Rheinriesling), Welschriesling and Zierfandler (Spätrot). The red wine varieties are: Blauburger, Blauer Burgunder (Blauer Spätburgunder, Blauburgunder, Pinot Noir), Blauer Portugieser, Blauer Wildbacher, Blaufränkisch, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Rathay, Roesler, St. Laurent, Syrah and Zweigelt (Blauer Zweigelt, Rotburger).

    grape vine caterpillar
    vineyard pest
    Grauburgunder
    a Pinot variety

    Grauburgunder is the link connecting Pinot Noir and Pinot Blanc, and was probably brought to Austria during the 14th Century. The grapes are susceptible to higher sugar levels and if very ripe, the colour of the grapes is a deep, golden yellow colour with light red reflections. The Pinot Gris wines are quite versatile, ranging from clean table wine (e.g. Pinot Grigio) to a more international style with malolactic characters and oak barrel maturation, to high quality dessert wines.

    great

    Description for very good or great wine.

    green cut grass
    aroma or taste

    Refers to a green or herbaceous notes or taste of a wine, often with unripe grapes or particular to certain varieties (e.g. Sauvignon blanc and Schilcher).

    green shoot or cane
    on the grapevine, this is a cane or shoot that is one year old and contains six to eight buds
    greening
    cultivation of green plant matter

    Measures taken in viticulture. Green plant matter, which has a flat root system and produce nitrogen, is specifically planted between the vine rows to prevent erosion, amongst other benefits.

    greening
    cultivation of green plant matter

    The deliberate planting of greenery between the rows of vines, which is necessary in certain steep slopes or terraced vineyards, to reduce the risk of flooding or water-logging after heavy rainfall, was well as erosion. See erosion.

    grey rot
    infection of the grape

    Grey or black rot is a grape condition, when unripe grapes are infected with the destructive form of Botrytis Cinerea.

    gross lees
    the sediment in the barrel or tank

    This is the sediment of the dead lees, yeasts and other deposits that have gathered in the bottom of the tank or barrel. These deposits may also be cleaned and distilled into yeast brandy, in Austria is known as the Gelägerbrand, Glögerbrand or Hefebrand.

    Grüner Sylvaner
    white wine variety in Austria

    This variety is an old European quality wine variety, and is a natural crossing of Traminer x Österreichisch Weiß. Although it is no longer a significant variety in Austria, it has become popular in Germany (where it is called Silvaner). The wines are generally quite neutral and soft in taste, yet pair well with food.

    Grüner Veltliner
    white wine variety

    Undisputedly the most important white wine variety in Austria (with approximately a third of the total vineyard area). The Grüner Veltliner is predominat in Niederösterreich (in the Weinviertel, Vienna and along the Danube). The spectrum of styles range from the base for sparkling wine production to light-bodied, youthful and quaffable wines to rich, quite exceptional vintage wines and noble sweet dessert wines especially as Ice Wine). All styles of Grüner Veltliner share the recognisable mix of fruit (apple, pear, quince) and spice (characteristic pepperyness and nuances of nut). The synonym of Weißgipfler, and although rarely used nowadays, takes its name from the pale, white-coloured buds.

    guyot
    form of trellising system

    An internationally widespread form of vine-training system (two canes and two spurs).

    gyropalette
    girosol, a square steel crate

    Also known as a girasol, this rotating special metal crate is the mechanised form of riddling, used in the production of traditional method sparkling wine-making.

  • half bottle
    bottle format size

    A half bottle with a capacity of 0.375 litres, very popular for high quality sweet wines.

    harmony

    Refers to the balanced taste, particularly when the alcohol, acidity and residual sugar are well balanced with each other.

    harsh
    dominant

    Wine with predominantly high acidity.

    Harvest
    picking the grapes

    The harvest of the ripe grapes usually takes place in Austria during September and October. We differentiate between the grapes picked beginning of the vintage, the preliminary harvest, the main harvest, the late harvest as well as harvesting by hand or machine.

    harvest
    picking, or collection of the (ripe) grapes

    The harvest of the ripe grapes usually takes place in Austria during September and October. We differentiate between the grapes picked beginning of the vintage, the preliminary harvest, the main harvest, the late harvest as well as harvesting by hand or machine.

    haze
    slight cloudiness in the wine
    hazy or cloudy wine
    haze caused by the heat-unstable proteins

    If the wine has a high concentration of heat-unstable proteins, or is stored in too warm an environment, protein particles fall out and the wine becomes hazy.

    heady

    The description of a wine with a high, yet well integrated alcohol level, but is not sharp or brandy-like.

    health and wine

    Health and wine is quite a controversial topic. In the Ancient world and during the Middle Ages, wine was a highly regarded medicine or healing potion, and event the latest studies confirm that if a healthy person consumes a moderate measure of wine, it can be benefitial to their health and well-being. The content matter responsible for these effects are resveratrol and the polyphenols (vitamin 'P'). Scientists agree that the regular consumption of red wine can reduce cardiovascular disease.

    heating the must

    The wine-making operation of the gentle and gradual heating of the must to kick-off fermentation, and especially when some yeast strains only become active at a certain temperature.

    heavy

    Describes a wine with high alcohol and extract.

    hectare
    metric unit of measurement

    Metric measurement, where 10,000 square metres equates to 100 Ar or "are". The suffice -are is applied to hect-are, i.e. hectare. There is no direct equivalent in imperial measurement.

    hectolitre
    metric unit of measurement

    1 hectolitre is 100 litres

    herbaceous

    Undesired, often pungent aroma, that is reminiscent of cooked vegetables (e.g. cabbage).

    Heuriger/Buschenschank

    The traditional German description for a Buschenschank or Heuriger wine tavern..

    high vine training system
    type of vine trellis or training system

    The high culture vine wire training system was developed by Lenz Moser in the 1930s, to facilitate the use of machinery in the vineyards.

    histamine
    belongs to the biogenic amines

    Belongs to the biogenic amines, and often responsible for sudden headaches. Histamines are found in a large number of foodstuffs, yet Austrian wine and Sekt are generally low in histamines.

    hollow

    Describes a thin, light-bodied and one-dimensional wine.

    Holy Saint Urban

    Urban I was Pope in the 3rd Century, and is often  portrayed with wine grapes. In Austria, he is regarded as patron of the vintners, wine merchants and coopers. St Urban's day is 25 May, and is the most important festive day after the "cold weather" Patron Saints.

    Honifogl
    name of a single-vineyard

    An old term for a Smaragd quality category of wine in the Wachau, that was only ever used once.

    horizontal press
    machine used to press grapes

    A piece of machinery used in the wine-making operation of crushing or pressing the grapes or mash. Nowadays the gentle pneumatic presses are more widespread than, for example, the bladder presses. There is a small number of hydraulic horizontal presses in Austria, and the Torculum or Roman presses only have historical significance. The traditional basket presses and screw presses are seldom in Austrian viticulure.

    hybrids
    crossing of two inter-specific hybrid vine varieties

    The result of crossing two inter-specific hybrid vine varieties, usually between native American and European (Vitis vinifera) vine varieties. The robust hybrids are also known as inter-specific crossings.

    Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)
    wine fault

    Not an uncommon wine fault, when the wine has a foul, pungent smell. We differenciate between the hydrogen sulfide (foul eggs), mercaptans (onion, garlic), yeasty and aromatic faults.

    hydrometer for must

    The hydrometer is used to confirm the must weight (sugar content of the must). 1°KMW is equivalent to 10 gram or sugar per kilogram of must. The Klosterneuburg Must Scale was invented by Baron August Wilhelm von Babo, founder of the viticultural school in Klosterneuburg. Nowadays, a refractometer is commonly used to measure the must weight.

  • Ice Saints
    Patron Saints for Weather

    The Patron Saints Pankratius, Servatius, Bonifatius and Sophie all celebrate their Name Days between 12 May and 15 May respectively, the period when a late frost can be potentially destructive for the vines.

    Ice Wine
    Sweet wine produced from crushed frozen grapes

    A speciality from Austria and Germany. Ice Wine may only be produced using grapes that are completely frozen at the time of harvest and pressing (between minus 6 and minus 10 degrees Celsius, according to the sugar content). The minimum must weigt ist 25°KMW and production in Austria is dominant in Wagram, the Weinviertel and Burgenland.

    immediately pressed
    wine produced from black grapes, that is pressed straight away

    The austrian term for a rigorous selection of the best wine barrels for a particular wine, tasted using the pipette. One particularly famous example is the St. Laurent Ausstich from Stift Klosterneuburg.

    Impériale
    large bottle format

    A bottle wine capacity of 6 litres, also known as a Methusalem.

    impregnation process
    artificial impregnation or addition of carbon dioxide

    The impregnation of carbon dioxide is a common and efficient practice in the production of sparkling wine. The wine label must specify, that the sparkling wine was produced using added carbon dioxide.

    indigenous
    native grape varieties

    The Austrian term for indigenous varieties, which unlike their international counterparts, are only found locally. Classic examples are the Rotgipfler and Zierfandler in Thermenregion, Roter Veltliner in Wagram and the Blauer Wildbacher in the Weststeiermark.

    information on cork closure

    Important information about the wine, e.g. producer, variety, vintage and so on, is imprinted, or branded onto the cork closure.

    integrated viticulture
    practice in viticulture

    Describes a sustainable form of viticulture, with minimal use of chemical substances and an incorporation of organic winemaking practices. This environmentally form of viticulture is practised by a large majority of Austrian producers.

    intensity

    Describes the complexity and intensity of a wine.

    inter-specific hybrid varieties
    crossing of two inter-specific hybrid vine varieties

    The result of crossing two inter-specific hybrid vine varieties, usually between native American and European (Vitis vinifera) vine varieties. The robust hybrids are also known as inter-specific crossings.


    inter-specific hybrids
    ungrafted vines

    This term refers to those grape vine varieties, that are ungrafted, and also includes inter-specific hybrid crossings with American and European varieties.

    international style

    A wine described with an international style usually refers to wines that have undergone the malolactic fermentation and maturation in oak barrels, as well as wines that display little or no regional typicity.

    international varieties

    Refers to the international, 'globe-trotting' grape varieties, such as Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Shiraz and Co, as opposed to the indigenous, regionally typical grape varieties.

    interrupt the fermentation

    The deliberate interruption or arrest of the fermentation, giving the wine retained natural residual sugar.

    irrigation
    a form of irrigation

    The irrigation of a vineyard, usual for sites with low annual rainfall, for example drip irrigation.

    irrigation
    a form of irrigation

    The irrigation of a vineyard, usual for sites with low annual rainfall, for example drip irrigation.

    Isabella
    inter-specific hybrid variety

    Hybrid variety from Vitis lambrusca and Vitis vinifera, and the basis for many Uhudlers from Südburgenland.

  • jam

    Cooked berry and fruit flavours in red wine.

    Jeroboam
    double Magnum

    Refers to a double Magnum bottle format with a capacity of 3 litres (particularly for Champagne). Also a term that refers to 4 or 5 litre bottles.

    Jubiläumsrebe
    white wine variety of little significance in Austria

    White wine variety of little significance in Austria. The Jubiläumsrebe variety is a new crossing created by Prof. Dr. Fritz Zweigelt of Grauer Portugieser x Frühroter Veltliner, and when cultivated is often used for sweet wine production.

    juicy

    Describes a wine with an attractive taste impression and inticing fruit acidity.

    Junker
    the description for young wines in the Steiermark

    The ‘Junker‘ is a registered trademark for the first wines from the Steiermark (since 1995), and the logo is a man wearing the typically Styrian hat with a distinctive feather. The officially Junker presentation from over 300 producers occurs at the beginning of November.


  • Kabinett
    Quality wine category

    Superior quality wine with a natural must weight of at least 17°KMW and a maximum of 13% alcohol by volume. The maximum permitted residual sugar value is 9 g/l and chaptalization of the must or sweetening of the wine is prohibited. Otherwise, the parameters are the same as Quality Wine.

    Kamptal
    wine-growing region

    Its name refers to the Kamp river. And with approx. 3,800 hectares and numerous wine estates, the Kamptal is one of Austria’s most successful areas in export markets. Read more

    Kamptal DAC

    The designation and marketing term for regionally typical Grüner Veltliner and Riesling that is permitted from the 2008 vintage for the Klassik (classic) and Reserve categories.

    Kellerberg, cellar buildings with several storeys

    In many Austrian wine-growing regions, the traditional wine cellars are situated outside of the town centres. These villages without chimneys can be several storeys high, and are described in Austria as the Kellerberg, or cellar hill. They are made up of a press house, the so-called "Kellerhals" and the underground tunnels, that are often an interlinked labyrinth of passageways.

    Kellergasse, cellar buildings next to each other

    In many Austrian wine-growing regions, the traditional wine cellars are situated outside of the town centres. These villages without chimneys can be several storeys high, and are described in Austria as the Kellerberg, or cellar hill. They are made up of a press house, the so-called "Kellerhals" and the underground tunnels, that are often an interlinked labyrinth of passageways.

    Kellergassenfest, wine festival held in the cellars
    a traditional form of wine tasting

    A festival held to taste the wines, and where the cellar doors are “open“.

    Klassik

    This is the permitted description for a wine style, but not a legal term. These are usually wines with medium alcohol levels that display varietal characters and no lor sublte aromas of oak barrel maturation.

    Klevner
    Weißburgunder

    The Weißburgunder or Pinot Blanc was sometimes called 'Klevner' in the Steiermark.

    Klosterneuburg Must Weight Scale (°KMW)
    a hydrometer is used to measure the sugar content of the must

    The hydrometer is used to confirm the must weight (sugar content of the must). 1°KMW is equivalent to 10 gram or sugar per kilogram of must. The Klosterneuburg Must Weight Scale was invented by Baron August Wilhelm von Babo, founder of the viticultural school in Klosterneuburg. Nowadays, a refractometer is commonly used to measure the must weight.

    KMW
    Klosterneuburg Must Weight Scale (°KMW)
    KMW must weight
    The Klosterneuburg Must Weight Scale

    The °KMW is the scale used in Austrian viticulture to measure the weight of the must, and is an interpretation of the sugar content and in some cases the extract of the must.

    Kober
    rootstock

    The Kober group of rootstocks for grafted vines was created by Austrian agronomist Franz Kober, the most popular being the Kober 5BB.

    Kosher wine
    a wine produced according to Judaism

    A wine produced according to Judaism.

    Kremstal
    wine-growing region

    The vineyards of the Kremstal are divided into three different zones: the beautiful historic town of Krems and the rocky Kremstal valley itself. But its uniting elements are the world-class Kremstal DAC whites made from Grüner Veltliner und Riesling. Mehr lesen

    Kremstal DAC

    The designation and marketing term for regionally typical Grüner Veltliner and Riesling that is permitted from the 2007 vintage for the Klassik (classic) and Reserve categories.

  • lactic
    taste impression

    Sensory term for a wine with a lactic acid aroma, reminiscent of butter, milk, yoghurt or cheese.

    lactic acid

    A mild and stable acid type, that is produced during the malolactic fermentation (MLF).

    lactic acid bacteria

    The bacteria responsible for the conversion of malic acid into lactic acid and carbon dioxide.

    Lagerbukett

    "The positive description of the aroma components that derive from the grape. The various types of aromas, ranging from floral, fruity, spicy and so on, are listed in the aroma wheel. Both the bouquet in the nose and the retronasal aroma perception at the back of the throat, often described in English as the flavour.
    We sub-divide the aromas into three categories, the primary, secondary and tertiary aromas or bouquet. Primary aromas refer to the fruit flavour components found in the grape, and which upon tasting, are recognisable with aromas present in the finished wine. We speak of wine-like or grapey aromas, and often you can recognise the character of the grape variety from a particular scent of berries, fruit, petals or flower, for example the intense rose petal aroma in Traminer. The secondary aromas come from the winery, and are aromatic components that derive from grape handling, fermentation and the maturation of the wine. You can even refer to the smell of fermentation, or detect wine faults (such as too much sulphur dioxide) yet the more desirable aromas include roasting or toasting and vanilla from oak barrel aging. The tertiary aromas are those that develop with bottle aging, a typical example being the development of the petrol note with maturing Riesling. Again, wine faults may also be included, the most common being cork taint".

    Landwein (land wine)
    classification of quality

    Refers to a wine with a minimum must weight of 14° KMW, and that originates from a wine-growing region. The maximum permitted yield applies to Landwein (land wine) and in EU wine legislation, the correct term is a wine with Protected Geographical Indication.

    lateral shoot
    side shoot

    Lateral shoot growth on the vine, which also contain grapes, that are usually removed or cut off.

    lateral shoot
    side shoot

    Lateral shoot growth on the vine, which also contain grapes, that are usually removed or cut off.

    lean, slender

    Describes a wine without much body, one that is also lean and thin, yet in certain instances is perceived as being elegant.

    lees
    yeast sediment

    This is the sediment of the dead lees, yeasts and other deposits that have gathered in the bottom of the tank or barrel. These deposits may also be cleaned and distilled into yeast brandy, in Austria is known as the Gelägerbrand, Glögerbrand or Hefebrand.

    lees
    solid particles in must or a wine that is not yet ready to be bottled
    lees stirring
    movement of the yeasts or lees in the barrel or tank

    Bâtonnage is the French term for the regular lees stirring in the tank or barrel.

    lees stirring
    movement of the yeasts or lees in the barrel or tank

    Bâtonnage is the French term for the regular lees stirring in the tank or barrel.

    Leithaberg / Neusiedlersee-Hügelland
    wine-growing region

    The great white wines come from chalky soils of the Leithaberg DAC area. But also the Blaufränkisch growing throughout this area matures into fine terroir wines - like the red Leithaberg DAC. Read more

    Leithaberg DAC

    Refers to designation of origin, that was introduced for powerful white wines from the 2009 vintage. Here the regional typicity is more relevant than the grape varieties, and chalk and shale soils dominate the Leithaberg DAC wines. The red wine (predominantly Blaufränkisch) also displays mineral and spicy characteristics.

    length
    The last taste impression of a wine

    The last impression of the taste of a wine, also called aftertaste or persistence.

    length
    aftertaste

    The last impression of the taste of a wine, also called aftertaste or persistence.

    levels
    the level of the wine in the bottle

    The level of the wine in the bottle, and an important factor with older wines, where the good levels are important to avoid oxidation.

    light

    A light wine with low alcohol.

    Limousin
    choice of oak

    French-origin oak used in the construction of oak barrels, generally more common for Cognac than wine production.


    little

    Describes a thin and light-bodied wine with low alcohol and little extract.

    lively

    Describes a light-bodied, refreshing and often spritzy wine with zesty acidity.

    loess
    type of soil

    This distinctive yellow type of soil with a fine sediment is prevalent in Wagram, the Weinviertel and in many other wine-growing regions in Austria.

    long

    Tasting term used to describe the length of the wine.

    Lyra form of vine training
    type of training system

    Sophisticated form of vine training system, where the canopy is trained in a Y-shape.

  • maceration
    letting the must rest on the grape skins for better extraction

    In order to extract sufficient colour and phenolics from the skis of black grapes, there is usually a maceration of the must before proceeding to fermentation, which according to wine style, vintage and variety, can last from a few days to many weeks.

    macroclimate
    climate of a specific climate zone

    The term climate refers to the sum of the influences and elements of the weather, such as temperature, sunshine hours, rainfall, amongst other factors, that occur over a longer period of time, as opposed to short term or current weather patterns. We differentiate between the macroclimate (the large climatic zones), the mesoclimate (climatic influence of the individual states or regions), and the microclimate (the local cliamte in the single-vineyards or sites). Austria has three major climatic zone, these being the continental climate, the Pannonian climate and the Mediterranean climate.

    maderized
    a sensoric term for an over-aged wine

    A sensoric term for an over-aged wine, with one or more shades of brown in colour, and with an over-developed taste indicating it is well past its best. A comparison therefore with the intentional style of Maderia, is permitted.

    Magnum
    bottle size format

    Bottle with 1.5 litre capacity.

    main harvest

    Dependant upon the weather conditions, this term refers to the most important harvesting period.

    malic acid
    natural acidity

    Malic acid is one of the principal organic acids found in wine, that is widely present in under-ripe grapes and decomposes as the grapes naturally ripen.

    malolactic
    refers to the malolactic fermentation (MLF), and describes the conversion of stronger malic acid naturally present in new wines to lactic acid and carbon dioxide.

    Refers to the malolactic fermentation (MLF), and describes the conversion of stronger malic acid naturally present in new wines to lactic acid and carbon dioxide. The conversion is caused by naturally occurring lactic acid bacteria. Malo wines are generally softer, have a smoother texture and are more stable. On the other hand, the malolactic fermentation is avoided for the fresher style of youthful and spicy white wines.

    malolactic fermentation
    reduction of the malic acid

    Refers to the malolactic fermentation (MLF), and describes the conversion of stronger malic acid naturally present in new wines to lactic acid and carbon dioxide. The conversion is caused by naturally occurring lactic acid bacteria. Malo wines are generally softer, have a smoother texture and are more stable. On the other hand, the malolactic fermentation is avoided for the fresher style of youthful and spicy white wines.

    malolactic fermentation
    second fermentation

    Refers to the malolactic fermentation (MLF), and describes the conversion of stronger malic acid naturally present in new wines to lactic acid and carbon dioxide. The conversion is caused by naturally occurring lactic acid bacteria. Malo wines are generally softer, have a smoother texture and are more stable. On the other hand, the malolactic fermentation is avoided for the fresher style of youthful and spicy white wines.

    Malvasier, Frühroter Veltliner

    A variety that is losing significance, usually cultivated for its table grapes or for young wine or pouring wine in one of the many wine-growing regions in Niederösterreich. The wines are generally soft and mild, with delicate aromas.

    marc, pomace

    The mashed rest of the pressed skins, pips (perhaps also stalks) from the grapes, that is recycled in the form of compost for the vineyard or distilled to produce brandy (in Italy the grappa and in France the marc).

    marc, pomace

    The mashed rest of the pressed skins, pips (perhaps also stalks) from the grapes, that is recycled in the form of compost for the vineyard or distilled to produce brandy (in Italy the grappa and in France the marc).

    massive

    Describes a grand and powerful wine, which has high alcohol and extract.

    Master of Wine

    The title MW is a qualification taken over many years study, and awarded by the Institute of Masters of Wine (founded in London in 1955). The Austrian Weinakademie (wine academy) in Rust offers part of the Master of Wine educational programme.

    maturation
    period of maturation

    The maturation of the wine following the alcoholic fermentation.

    mature
    mature taste

    Positive description for a mature wine, referring to the developing aromas.

    mature
    reached its peak maturity

    The wine is fully developed and mature, having reached it peak.

    mature, old
    very developed aroma

    This can be a positive description for a desired and typical aroma of maturity, yet also a negative term for an oxidised or over developed and unharmonious old wine.

    matured in wood (or oak)
    taste impression

    Refers to the maturation or storage in large or small wooden (oak) barrels.

    maximum yield (in hectares)

    The maximum permitted yield per hectare in Austria is 9,000 kg of grapes or 6,750 l of wine (67.5 hl/ha). This applies to Landwein (Land wine), Qualitätswein (Quality Wine), Prädikatswein (high quality sweet wines) and Wein (Austrian wine without specific origin) with varietal and/or vintage declaration.

    mead
    honey wine

    Mead is the common name for honey wine.

    meagre

    Describes a thin wine with little extract.

    medicinal

    Unconventional smell or taste, reminiscent iodine or medicinal herbs.

    Mediterranean climate
    the Mediterranean climate prevails in the wine-growing regions of the Steiermark

    The term climate refers to the sum of the influences and elements of the weather, such as temperature, sunshine hours, rainfall, amongst other factors, that occur over a longer period of time, as opposed to short term or current weather patterns. We differentiate between the macroclimate (the large climatic zones), the mesoclimate (climatic influence of the individual states or regions), and the microclimate (the local cliamte in the single-vineyards or sites). Austria has three major climatic zone, these being the continental climate, the Pannonian climate and the Mediterranean climate.

    medium-dry

    This term applies to wines with a maximum residual sugar content of 12 g/l, or up to 18 g/l, if the acidity is no more than 10 g/l below this value.

    medium-sweet
    a medium-sweet wine

    If the residual sugar content is exceeds the maximum permitted value for medium-dry (halbtrocken), but lies below 45 g/l (sweet), then the wine is described as being medium-sweet (lieblich).

    medium-sweet

    If the residual sugar content exceeds the maximum permitted value for medium-dry (halbtrocken), but lies below 45 g/l (sweet), then the wine is described as being medium-sweet (lieblich).

    membrane filter
    very fine form of sieve filter

    The following types of filters or filtrations are common; depth or sheet filtration, kieselguhr, membrane or cartridge filters, rotary drum vacuum filter, pressure leaf filter, centrifugation, cross flow or tangential filtration.

    Merlot

    International grape variety, and the product of a Cabernet crossing, that has been an officially classified quality wine variety in Austria since 1986, and is increasing in popularity. The grapes bunches are generally large with small-loose berried grapes, and the wines are deep and dark with elegant tannins and juiciness (cassis and pepper pod notes), and the Merlot is a popular wine for blends.

    mesoclimate
    the climate of a country, federal state or region

    The term climate refers to the sum of the influences and elements of the weather, such as temperature, sunshine hours, rainfall, amongst other factors, that occur over a longer period of time, as opposed to short term or current weather patterns. We differentiate between the macroclimate (the large climatic zones), the mesoclimate (climatic influence of the individual states or regions), and the microclimate (the local cliamte in the single-vineyards or sites). Austria has three major climatic zone, these being the continental climate, the Pannonian climate and the Mediterranean climate.

    metallic

    Describes a steely, metal-like taste.

    méthode champenoise
    traditional method of making Champagne

    The Champagne method is a term that is only permitted in the Champagne wine-growing region of France, and describes the traditional method where the second fermentation occurs in the bottle.

    méthode rurale (rural method)
    process of producing sparkling wines

    Not a common practice in Austria. This process of producing sparkling wines is primarily used for low-alcohol products or those with residual sugar that come from the first fermentation (tank or bottle).

    Methusalem

    Large bottle format with a capacity of 6 litres.

    methyl alcohol

    Normally an undesired alcohol, that only occurs in wine in minute quantities.

    micro-oxidation

    Actually a process of micro-oxygenation, and the process of adding oxygen during (red) wine making.

    microclimate

    The term climate refers to the sum of the influences and elements of the weather, such as temperature, sunshine hours, rainfall, amongst other factors, that occur over a longer period of time, as opposed to short term or current weather patterns. We differentiate between the macroclimate (the large climate zones), the mesoclimate (climatic influence of the individual states or regions), and the microclimate (the local climate in the single-vineyards or sites). Austria has three major climate zones, these being the continental climate, the Pannonian climate and the Mediterranean climate.

    mildew
    fungal vine disease

    Includes powdery mildew (oidium) and downy mildew (peronospora).

    mineral soil taste

    Refers to an earthy taste, often typical for the type of soil or site (minerals).

    minerality
    the aromatic character of a wine that reflects its particular soil type

    The aromatic character of a wine that reflects its particular soil type, for example primary rock. Mineral wines generally have a slightly salty character, or aroma of flint stones. The definition of minerality is quite difficult to grasp, but is currently widely used.

    Mittelburgenland
    wine-growing region

    Blaufränkisch is the leading grape in the Mittelburgenland wine-growing area. And the typicity of Mittelburgenland DAC wines reflects the distinctive Blaufränkisch aroma of wild berries.  Read more

    Mittelburgenland DAC

    Blaufränkisch, the designated regionally typical variety from Mittelburgenland, has been marketed in two quality levels since 2005. These categories are "Klassik" and "Reserve" (the latter may also declare a single-vineyard).

    MLF
    malolactic fermentation

    Refers to the malolactic fermentation (MLF), and describes the conversion of stronger malic acid naturally present in new wines to lactic acid and carbon dioxide. The conversion is caused by naturally occurring lactic acid bacteria. Malo wines are generally softer, have a smoother texture and  are more stable. On the other hand, the malolactic fermentation is avoided for the fresher style of youthful and spicy white wines.

    Morillon (Chardonnay)
    Synonym for Chardonnay

    Morillon is the synonym for the Chardonnay variety in the Steiermark.

    mouldy
    wine fault

    A faulty, oxidised wine.

    mouldy taste
    wine fault

    A wine fault that is recognisable from a dull, musty smell and taste. The most likely causes are botrytis infection of unripe grapes or a lack of hygiene during vinification.

    mouldy, musty smell

    An unpleasant, faulty smell, that is reminischent of mould.

    mousiness

    A wine fault, with a pungent smell of mouse urine.

    mousse
    the effervescence of bubbles with sparkling wine

    The effervescence of bubbles in sparkling wine.

    mousseux
    the effervescence or escape of carbon dioxide with sparkling wines
    mouthfeel
    taste impression

    The virtue of wines, which display a high alcohol and glycerine content, yet also have balanced acidity and integrated tannins.

    mulled wine
    warmed wine

    This is a white or red wine, with added spices (cinnamon and cloves), that is heated, usually sweetened and served warm.

    Müller-Thurgau, Riesling Sylvaner
    white wine variety in Austria

    This is an early ripening variety with softness and delicate aromas. The crossing was made by the Swiss botanist Hermann Müller from the Swiss canton of Thurgau, and is Riesling x Chasselat de Courtillier (Madeleine Royal). For many years, it was misunderstood to be the crossing of Riesling x Sylvaner, hence the name Rivaner, yet nowadays, the variety is predominantly cultivated for its use in young wines (such as the Junker or Junger Österreicher) and in cases for sweet wines.

    Muscat aroma

    The distinctive aroma of wines from the Muscat variety of grapes.

    Muscat, Gelber Muskateller
    white wine variety in Austria

    Gelber Muskateller (Muscat blanc à petits grains) is unfortunately still very much a rarity in Austria. This ancient and diverse member of the Muscat family can be very demanding in the vineyard and is difficult to cultivate. The grapey wine displays a distinct bouquet of muscat, citrus fruit aromas as well as herbed spice and floral notes. Due to its vibrant and juicy acidity, it is a popular choice for an aperitif wine in Austrian restaurants.

    Muskat Ottonel
    white wine variety

    The Muskat-Ottonel is a more recent addition to the ancient Muscat family, and was cultivated from a seedling in France, and is thought to be a crossing of Chasselas and an undetermined Muscat variety. Read more

    Muskateller, Muscat
    white wine variety in Austria

    Gelber Muskateller (Muscat blanc à petits grains) is unfortunately still very much a rarity in Austria. This ancient and diverse member of the Muscat family can be very demanding in the vineyard and is difficult to cultivate. The grapey wine displays a distinct bouquet of muscat, citrus fruit aromas as well as herbed spice and floral notes. Due to its vibrant and juicy acidity, it is a popular choice for an aperitif wine in Austrian restaurants.

    must

    The description used for the freshly pressed grape juice prior to fermentation.

    must
    freshly pressed grape juice for the vinification of wine
    must heating

    A process of red wine fermentation, when the must is heated to approximately 74°C and then pressed shortly afterwards. This reduces the production time and is an efficient method of producing simple, quaffable table wines.

    must weight
    specific (sugar) weight of the must

    Specific weight of the grape must that is primarily dependant on the sugar content value and in certain cases the extract. In Austria, the must  weight is measured in °KMW.

    must, mash or grape pomace

    Particularly the case in red wine production, this is the term for the mash or pomace of grape flesh, skins, pips and juice that is the product of destemming and crushing.

    musty
    unclean

    Wines with a slightly unclean nose or taste are described as being musty, or masked.

    mutation
    a change in the key substances of the vine

    Describes a change in the key substances of the vine. Grapevines can be deliberately mutated during specific breeding. Yet there is also the occurrence of natural breeding, and it often comes to mutations over a period of many decades or centuries, such as the Pinot varieties.

  • natural wine
    organic wine

    Refers to a wine that was produced from a certified organic wine estate.

    natural yeasts
    Pilze

    We talk of a spontaneous fermentation, when only the natural or wild yeasts, which are also found on the grapes, are used to trigger fermentation (and not cultured yeasts).

    Nebukadnezar
    bottle format size

    Large bottle size with a capacity of 15 litres.

    Négociant
    French term for a bottler or wine merchant
    Négociant eleveur
    a wine producer who doesn't own vineyards

    A wine merchant who sells grapes, must or young wine, that is vinified and bottled, yet is a vintner without vineyards.

    nets

    Nets are spread across the vines to protect the ripe grapes from birds (especially starlings).

    Neuburger
    indigenous white wine variety

    Old indigenous white wine variety that is still widespread in the Thermenregion. It is a natural crossing of Roter Veltliner x Sylvaner, and was previously popular in the dry regions (e.g. Wachau, Furth-Göttweig). The wines display an elegant, harmonious structure with delicate spice and soft, juicy acidity.

    Neusiedlersee
    wingegrowing area

    wThe area on the eastern shore of the vast, shallow Lake Neusiedl is home to one of the world’s best terroirs for sweet wines such as Beerenauslesen (BA) and Trockenbeerenauslesen (TBA). Read more

    neutral

    Undistinguishable wine, without any specific aromatic or flavoured characteristics.

    neutralising wine

    After or during an extensive wine tasting, it is often the case that a simple, neutral wine is served to allow the strained taste buds to recover and relax, thus preparing the palate for further wine consuming pleasure.

    new crossing
    the result of crossing two varieties, with the aim of creating a vine that has improvements upons its parents.

    Famous new crossings are for example, Müller-Thurgau (Riesling x Chasselat de Courtellier), Blauer Zweigelt (St. Laurent x Blaufränkisch), and Blauburger (Blauer Portugieser x Blaufränkisch).

    new oak
    describes the taste of new, but untoasted, oak barrels
    New vintage / Heuriger wine tavern

    The word Heuriger has two interpretations, firstly it describes the wine from the last (or most recent) vintage, and in former years, the key date was 11 November. On the other hand, the term refers to the wine tavern, where own-produce wine and simple, cold foods are served. See also Buschenschank.

    New World

    Contrary to the Old World, the New World includes the former colonies of for example North America (USA and Canada), South America (particularly Argentina and Chile), South Africa, Australia and New Zealand.

    Niederösterreich (Lower Austria)
    generic wine-growing region

    Niederösterreich is the largest generic wine appellation in Austria, and forms the predominant part of the viticultural region known as 'Weinland'. The part of 'Weinland” situated along the River Danube has developed both dramatically and postively over the past few decades, and is subdivided into individual wine-growing regions, such as the Wachau, which boasts its own unique territorial protection. Other regions located along the Danube include Kremstal, Kamptal and on the southern bank of the Danube, Traisental, which has defined DAC designations for the regional typicity of its leading varieties Grüner Veltliner and Riesling. In the wine-growing region known as Wagram, wine producers cultivate the white wine speciality, called Roter Veltliner, alongside the ubiquitous Grüner Veltliner with absolute conviction. Weinviertel is Austria's largest single wine-growing region, and is regarded as being the pioneer behind the DAC designations of origin, as well as being the home of Grüner Veltliner's signature “peppery” note. In Carnuntum, the wine-growing region renowned for its competence in red wine production, Blauer Zweigelt is the most important variety. Directly south of Vienna, Thermenregion offers an array of indigenous varieties from the white Rotgipfler and Zierfandler specialities, to the black St. Laurent grape.

    noble

    A wine that is literally noble and very fine.

    noble rot
    benevolent form of rot

    Botrytis cinerea in its benevolent form is a fungus responsible for noble rot. The fungus encourages the evaporation of juice and fruit concentration within the grape, influencing both aroma and taste. Noble rot occurs regularly in climatically favoured wine-growing regions, such as Seewinkel and Rust in Burgenland.

    Nose
    Wine jargon for the bouquet

    "The positive description of the aroma components that derive from the grape. The various types of aromas, ranging from floral, fruity, spicy and so on, are listed in the aroma wheel. This includes the bouquet in the nose and the retronasal aroma perception at the back of the throat, often described in English as the flavour.
    We sub-divide the aromas into three categories, the primary, secondary and tertiary aromas or bouquet. Primary aromas refer to the fruit flavour components found in the grape, and which upon tasting, are recognisable with aromas present in the finished wine. We speak of wine-like or grapey aromas, and often you can recognise the character of the grape variety from a particular scent of berries, fruit, petals or flower, for example the intense rose petal aroma in Traminer. The secondary aromas come from the winery, and are aromatic components that derive from grape handling, fermentation and the maturation of the wine. You can even refer to the smell of fermentation, or detect wine faults (such as too much sulphur dioxide) yet the more desirable aromas include roasting or toasting and vanilla from oak barrel aging. The tertiary aromas are those that develop with bottle aging, a typical example being the development of the petrol note with maturing Riesling. Again, wine faults may also be included, the most common being cork taint".

    nucleation point

    This is a deliberate etching or imperfection in the base of a Champagne or sparkling wine glass, to facilitate the effervescense of the bubbles and encourage a steady stream of bubbles of carbon dioxide (also mousse).

    nursery

    The reproduction and grafting operation of cultivated grape vines, so that seedlings are available for vintners and producers.

    nutty

    Describes the spice of a wine that is reminiscent of walnuts or hazelnuts, and most recognisable in many white Pinot variety wines.

  • oak
    choice of wood

    The wood from the oak tree (in Latin Quercus) is a popular choice for the construction of vats or barrels. Small oak barrels are particularly common, and the oak can come from the famous forests of Allier, Nevers, Tronçais, Limousin and Vosges in France, to native Austrian oak, Hungarian oak along with American and Russian examples.

    oak chips
    oak shavings

    To give the impression of an oak aged wine (see small oak barrel), the must, Sturm, mash or even the young wine are mixed with various grades of (toasted) oak chips (or oak shavings). This is a highly cost-efficient method of adding the aroma and taste of oak to a (usually cheap) wine, and has been permitted in the EU for a number of years now.

    oechsle
    German unit scale for must weight (°Oe)

    KMW equals approximately 5°Oe

    oenologist
    qualified winemaker

    In Austria, the oenology course is offered in the Viticultural School in Klosterneuburg, or at the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences in Vienna.

    oenology
    wine education and programme for wine and its vinification
    oidium
    fungal vine disease

    Powdery mildew, a fungal vine disease.

    OIV
    International Organisation for Vine and Wine

    Organisation internationale de la vigne et du vin, based in Paris.

    old vines
    denotes vines that are at least 40 years old

    A description on the wine label meaning the grapes have come from old vines. Wine from older vines have a lower yield, yet often better quality.

    old wine
    older vintage

    A colloquial term referring to the 'old wine' from the previous vintage, when sold after 11 November (St Martin's Day), when the Heuriger and Buschenschank wine taverns are permitted to sell the fresh wine from the new vintage. Nowadays however, the exact date or usage of the term is taken light-heartedly.

    Old World
    Refers to the European wine-growing regions

    The general description for European wine-growing regions, including the Mediterranean, the Middle East and North Africa, as opposed to the New World, which denotes the wine-producing countries abroad (former colonies).

    opaque

    A tasting term referring to the dense, dark colour of a red wine.

    open (for visitors)
    the Heuriger is open for business

    The colloquial term for when an Austrian Heuriger (or Buschenschank) is open to the public. Often just for a few weeks per year, this is visible by a long pole with a bush or fanned leaved attached to the end of it.

    open (for visitors)
    the Heuriger is open for business

    The colloquial term for when an Austrian Heuriger (or Buschenschank) is open to the public. Often just for a few weeks per year, this is visible by a long pole with a bush or fanned leaved attached to the end of it.

    opulence
    tasting impression

    Opulent and full-bodied taste, supported by the necessary alcohol content, sweetness, and extract.

    opulent
    tasting impression

    Full-bodied, heavy and often rich wine.

    organic viticulture
    certified organic viticulture

    Also known as organic viticulture, this is a specific form of viticulture with a focus on protecting the natural ecological system. The methods are certified and inspected in the various stages of viticulture.

    organic viticulture
    organic form of viticulture

    Also known as organic viticulture, this is a specific form of viticulture with a focus on protecting the natural ecological system. The methods are certified and inspected in the various stages of viticulture.

    organic wine
    organically produced wine

    Wine produced by organically certified viticulture.

    organoleptic inspection
    description for the Greek term relating to the senses

    The organoleptic characteristics of the wine relating to the colour, aroma and taste.

    origin

    Declaration of geographical origin of a wine or grapes, from which a wine is produced. The EU differentiates between wines with protected geographical indication Landwein (Land wine) and wine with protected description of specified origin (Quality Wine). In Austria, the wines with regional typicity that display characteristics of their origin are entrenched in the DAC philosophy , see DAC.

    oxidation
    reaction of must and wine compounds with oxygen

    Generally described as a Sherry tone or oxidation.

    oxidised
    influence of contact with air (oxygen) towards the aromatics and taste of wine

    Aromas reminiscent of apple peel or apple juice, see also fermentation and maderised.

    oxidised aroma
    wine fault

    Describes a wine fault following the negative influence of air (oxygenation), that can occur if the barrels are not kept topped up, or if sulphur is insufficient or added too late.

    oxidised maturation

    The opposite of a maturation where contact with air is inhibited, here the wine is in active contact with air, resulting in an oxidised, Sherry-like character.

  • pail
    unit of measurement

    An old measurement of capacity, usually equating to 56.6 litres (one pail or bucket) up to the 1000 ‘Eimer‘ or pail wooden cask.

    pale

    Refers to the colour intensity of the wine, in this case a pale wine.

    Pannobile
    brand collaboration

    A successful brand collaboration from Gols (Neusiedlersee wine-growing region), whose chosen brand name derives from Pannonia (once a Roman province) and noble (from the German word Nobile).

    passé
    past it

    The French derived word to describe a wine that is old and overdeveloped.

    past it

    A wine that is well past its peak, and no longer tastes as good as it once did.

    peak condition

    Refers to a wine with mature aromas and taste, that has reached its peak and is a pleasure to drink.

    pepper note
    The Austrian description for the pepper aroma in wine

    The pepper spice aroma is a characteristic that is also specific to Grüner Veltliner from the Weinviertel.

    peppery

    Perception of a spicy aroma and flavour, typical for Grüner Veltliner.

    perfume
    aroma

    The positive description for blossomy, floral aromatic impressions of a wine, for example the rose petal fragrance with Traminer.

    perfumed

    The excessive aromatic character of wine, primarily with aromatic varieties.

    peronospera
    fungal vine disease

    Peronospera is also known as downy mildew.

    pesticide
    insecticide

    The common name for all chemical pesticides. In Austria, the use of pesticides and fungicides is seldom employed.

    petrol note

    Aroma of mature white wine, with an aroma reminiscent of kerosine, tar and coffee. These aromatic components are particularly prevailant in aged Riesling.

    pH value
    the measurement for the acidity (or hardness) of wine
    phenolic, tannic

    A dry wine with high tannins.

    phenolics, tannins
    affect the taste impression of a wine

    Tannins and phenolics are part of the polyphenols, and are particularly dominant in the content of red wine.

    phenols
    large, important group of highly reactive chemical and organic compounds

    Phenols exist in the skins, pips and stalks of (black) grapes: these phenols include the anthocyanins (colour pigmentation), the flavonoids (colour and flavourings) as well as the tannins (phenolics). The general description for these components is polyphenols.

    pheromone
    pheromones are employed as a preventative measure to confuse certain animal specials (especially against the grape caterpillar)

    Pheromones and pheromone traps are predominantly employed in natural and organic viticulture.

    Phylloxera
    a vineyard pest that was brought to Europe from its native America

    Phylloxera vastatrix is the description for the vineyard pest that feeds on the roots and the leaves of a grapevine. The common European vine dies off once its roots have been infected by the pest. During the second half of the 19th Century, a whole of European viticulture had been affected and suffered damage. The only solution was to graft the scion of a European vine onto the rootstock of the phylloxera resistent American native vine variety, thus preventing complete devastation in the vineyards.

    phylloxera
    a vineyard pest that was brought to Europe from its native America

    Phylloxera vastatrix is the description for the vineyard pest that feeds on the roots and the leaves of a grapevine. The common European vine dies off once its roots have been infected by the pest. During the second half of the 19th Century, a whole of European viticulture had been affected and suffered damage. The only solution was to graft the scion of a European vine onto the rootstock of the phylloxera resistent American native vine variety, thus preventing complete devastation in the vineyards.

    phylloxera resistant

    The roots of native American vines are immune to phylloxera, hence their use as rootstocks.

    physiological ripeness
    the stage of peak ripeness, when optimal aromatic development in the grape is achieved and when the phenolics in the black grapes are perfectly ripe

    The exact definition of physiological ripeness is extremely difficult to define, and can often be controversial, usually being based on specific habits.  Whereas, at one time, the must weight was a decisive factor, as time passed, the acidity values and pH levels also began to play a role. Nowadays, the pips of the grapes define the physiological ripeness of a grape, and should be slightly brown in colour, have a mild, nutty taste, and not be too interwoven with the flesh of the grape.

    Pinot Blanc
    a Pinot variety

    Refers to the youngest member of the extensive, old Pinot varieties, that is also widespread all over the world. The classic style of wines aged in steel tank are aromatic, delicate and elegant on the palate, with its soft fruit, a touch of herbaceousness and nutty spice, make outstanding companions to food. The international style of Pinot blanc, with malolactic fermentation and oak barrel maturation, is convincing with its opulence and length, as are Pinot blanc wines that are blended with other Pinot varieties.

    Pinot Gris
    a Pinot variety

    Pinot Gris is the link connecting Pinot Noir and Pinot Blanc, and was probably brought to Austria during the 14th Century. The grapes are susceptible to higher sugar levels and if very ripe, the colour of the grapes is a deep, golden yellow colour with light red reflections. The Pinot Gris  wines are quite versatile, ranging from clean table wine (e.g. Pinot Grigio) to a more international style with malolactic characters and oak barrel maturation, to high quality dessert wines.

    Pinot Noir
    member of the Pinot varieties

    The Pinot Noir is an ancient variety from the Pinot family of varieties, and is a natural crossing of Pinot Meunier x Traminer. This highly regarded, classic variety is recognisable by its pale, often light brown shade of colour, with an aroma reminiscent of rowan berries, almonds, marzipan and sweet chestnuts. This international variety is largely cultivated in the cooler vineyards in the Thermenregion (e.g. Burgundermacher wine producers).

    Pinot varieties
    group, or family of grape varieties

    The Pinot varieties include Pinot Noir, Pinot Gris, Pinot Blanc and additionally (Pinot) Chardonnay and St. Laurent.

    plastic cork closure

    Or simply called the plastic cork, which often has more disadvantages and benefits. This type of closure is primarily used for simple quality wine or young wines.

    pleasant
    tasting impression

    Refers to a balanced, harmonious wine, that does not merit on having extract, but is pleasant, easy drinking wine.

    plump

    Describes a round, opulent wine.

    pneumatic press
    A piece of machinery used in the wine-making operation of crushing or pressing the grapes or must

    Nowadays the gentle pneumatic presses are more widespread than, for example, the bladder presses. There is a small number of hydraulic horizontal presses in Austria, and the Torculum or Roman presses only have historical significance. The traditional basket presses and screw presses are seldom in Austrian viticulure.

    pollination
    fertilisation

    This term refers to pollination, denoting the fertilisation of the female part of the grapevine flowers.

    polyphenols
    general term for aromatic compounds

    The polyphenoles in wine are often described as being vitamin "P", due to their positive benefits being acknowledged during a (moderate) consumption of wine.

    pouring wine
    a pouring (house) wine is usually a simple, quality wine

    These wines are sold by the glass in restaurants and bars, and the preferred bottle format is the 1 litre or 2 litre bottle.

    powdery mildew
    fungal disease

    Fungal disease that also affects grape vines.

    powerful

    full bodied, high alcohol wine with firm structure.

    powerful, vigorous

    Describes a powerful, full-bodied and opulent wine, with high alcohol.

    Prädikatswein
    Austrian wine category

    The grapes must fulfil strict requirement and are classified according to their must weight. Spätlese has for example a minimum must weight of 19°KMW, Auslese (21°KMW), Strohwein (grapes dried on straw mats) Eiswein (ice wine) and Beerenauslese all require 25°KMW. The Ausbruch requires 27°KMW and Trockenbeerenauslese requires at least 30°KMW. The residual sugar of these wines may only derive from the fermentation time, either by deliberatley arresting fermentation or through its natural end, and by no means may the wine be sweetened by Süssreserve (sweet grape must).

    preliminary harvest
    first harvest of the vintage

    A preliminary harvest is the first harvest of the vintage, when grapes for grapeguice, young wine or 'Sturm' (the Austrian partially fermented cloudy beverage) are picked. Weather conditions can also play a role.

    preliminary harvest
    selective work cycle in the vineyard prior to the main harvest

    In the preliminary harvest grapes are thinned out, particularly putrid or rotting grapes.

    premium

    This is not a legal term, but applies to the best wine with the highest quality of any one particular wine estate.

    Premium Weingüter Weinviertel
    the name of a vintner association

    With the aim of improving the quality and marketing of wines from the Weinviertel, a group of the region's best producers formed this collaborative association.

    press

    A piece of machinery used in the wine-making operation of crushing or pressing the grapes or must. Nowadays the gentle pneumatic presses are more widespread than, for example, the bladder presses. There is a small number of hydraulic horizontal presses in Austria, and the Torculum or Roman presses only have historical significance. The traditional basket presses and screw presses are seldom in Austrian viticulure.

    press house

    The traditional building or room reserved for the vinification of wine, and where the wine press is housed.

    pressure tank
    steel tank

    Steel tank construction, widely used for the production of sparkling wine.

    pricked
    wine fault

    A wine with a perceived wine fault (such as a flaw from acetic acid or malic acid).

    primary fruit, primary aromas
    impression of taste

    Youthful, varietal aromas that are typical for wines such as the Gelber Muskateller (Muscat), Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc and Traminer.

    primary rock
    the vague and general description for base rock

    Base rock is found predominantly in the Wachau, as well as in parts of Kremstal and Kamptal.

    Primeur / Nouveau
    common description for the new or first wines of a new vintage, that arrive onto the market in the autumn

    In Austria, these wines are the 'Junge Österreicher' (young Austrian wines) and the Steirische Junker, amongst others.

    Primus Carnuntum
    brand collaboration based in Carnuntum, that is specialised in producing and marketing a young (red) wine
    Producer
    winemaker or vintner

    Wineries or Associations (such as a cooperative), who grow their own grapes, may use the wording Erzeuger or Erzeugerabfüllung on an Austrian wine label.

    pronounced bouquet
    intensive, pronounced aromas

    Very intensive, almost pungent aroma and flavour compounds (almost as though the aromas were added).

    Prosecco

    Prosecco is an Italian grape variety (particularly in the wine-growing region of Veneto), from which (cheap and) simple sparkling wine is made.

    pruning
    important procedure for the grape vine, during the dormant period of the vine (in winter)

    During this winter pruning, the vine is adjusted to suit the chosen vine training system and can have an influence over the quality of the wine (yield to quality law). Relevant to each type of training system, we talk of a spur (2-3 buds), fruit cane or rod (4 – 5 buds), (green) shoot cane (6 – 8 buds) and cordon (more than 8 buds).

    pulp

    Describes the solid components of the black grapes (skins, pips and perhaps the stalks) that are pushed up to the surface of the mash by carbon dioxide. In order for a high quality red wine to achieve the necessary colour and tannin, it is essential to keep the pulp or cap moist at all times.

  • quaffable

    an elegant, light-bodied wine, that is enticing to drink

    quality

    The definition of quality in wine in Austria (and other countries for that matter) generally means that the minimum legal requirements for quality wine are more than fulfilled. There are also a whole range of official and unofficial parameters and descriptions that attempt to simplify the subjective perception of quality, yet in cases, even the most astute consumers appear confused. In Austria, the DAC designation aims to ease the identification of regionally typical quality wines.

    Quality wine
    the Austrian category for quality wine

    Quality Wine (Qualitätswein) is a highly regulated Austrian wine category. According to Austrian wine legislation, the following criteria must be adhered to: the grapes must originate from a wine-growing region, the minimum must weight required is at least 15°KMW, the maximum yield is restricted to 9,000kg of grapes or 6,750 litres of wine, the alcohol content must attain at least 9% by volume, the quality wine (Qualitätswein) must be sent for chemical analysis and pass a sensory tasting commission. Austrian quality wines are easily recognisable by their red-white-red control slip banderoles on the capsule, as well as the State control number on the wine label. Within the quality wine structure, the category of Kabinett plays a special role, as additional requirements have to be fulfilled. The EU defines "Quality Wine Produced in Specified Regions" and "Wines with Protected Geographical Indication". Prime examples of these wines within this category are the Austrian DAC wines.

    quarter measure
    a 0.25 litre glass measure

    The most common glass serving in the Heuriger and modest restaurants.

  • racking
    the racking of the clear wine from the sediment in a tank or barrel

    Wine-making operation of removing the clear wine from the settled sediment or lees.

    racking
    the racking of the clear wine from the sediment in a tank or barrel

    wine-making operation of removing the clear wine from the settled sediment or lees.

    racking
    the removal of the clear wine from the sediment from a tank or barrel

    The removal of the clear wine from the sediment in a tank or barrel. The wine is taken off the gross lees and cloudy particles.

    racy

    Describes a wine with robust acidity and vibrant spice.

    raisins

    Dried wine grapes (raisins), the colloquial term for the dried grapes used for Trockenbeerenauslese.

    Ráthay

    A new crossing from Klosterneuburg from Blauburger x (Seyve Villard 18-402 x Blaufränkisch), which is named after the second director of the viticultural school in Klosterneuburg, Emmerich Ráthay (1845-1900). The variety was classified as a quality grape variety in 2000 and is favoured (particularly by certified organic wine producers) for is resisitance against mildew and cold frosts. Yet the variety is still quite insignificant.

    RCGM
    rectified concentrated grape must

    In the EU, must may be chaptalized by using rectified concentrated grape must (RCGM), or to sweeten the wine. In Austria, this is seldomly practised.

    red wine
    red wine is made from black grape varieties

    red wine is made from black grape varieties, having spent a prolonged time in contact with the skins during maceration and fermentation, to increase colour intensity and tannin.

    reducing the yield

    The basis for quality in the vineyard, the so-called "unwritten law" in viticulture. The higher the yield, the lower the quality, and vice versa, and generally a rule of thumb is to leave eight bunches of grapes per vine.

    reducing the yield
    measurement of quality in the vineyard by reducing the yield

    The grapes are divided up on the vine, so that the lowest part of the grapes can be cut off before they can ripen.

    reductive vinification
    Vinification of a wine (usually in stainless steel tank) with little or no contact with oxygen.

    Sulphur is an age old method of aiding reduction, yet nowadays producers work with gas.

    reference wine in tastings

    During a wine tasting or wine competition, a reference wine is tasted beforehand to calibrate the tasters' palates.

    refermentation

    If there is insufficient hygiene during the fermentation, the remaining residual sugars can accidentally referment in the bottle. This is visually recognisable from tears on the inside of the bottle, or on the palate, there is an typical sensation of carbon dioxide.

    Refractometer
    Refractor instrument used to measure the content of sugar in a grape or in must.
    refrigeration
    important process during the fermentation

    Important wine-making operation during fermentation, with the purpose of controlling the fermentation or arresting the fermentation (particularly with white wines), but also for the removal of tartrate crystals (cold stabilisation). There are various methods used for cooling the grapes, must or wine.

    regrafting
    changing the grape variety in a vineyard

    This process is also known as regrafting an existing vineyard. Here, a scion or single bud of the new grape variety is grafted onto the existing rootstock or shoot of the existing vine. The advantage is that the existing and established root system remains intact.

    regrafting
    changing the grape variety in a vineyard

    This process is also known as regrafting an existing vineyard. Here, a scion or single bud of the new grape variety is grafted onto the existing rootstock or shoot of the existing vine. The advantage is that the existing and established root system remains intact.

    Reserve
    Austrian quality wine category

    This is a new term embedded in the Austrian wine law. The following critera must be adhered to: quality wine with vintage declaration, at least 13% alcohol by volume, typical of its variety, typical of its origin, produced from the recommended varieties, delayed submission for its State control number analysis as well as the delayed sale of the wine on the market.

    residual sugar

    Refers to the remaining sugar content of the grapes or must that has not been fermented into alcohol, and is the result of a natural or deliberate arrest of the fermentation.

    residual sugar

    Refers to the remaining sugar content of the grapes or must that has not been fermented into alcohol, and is the result of a natural or deliberate arrest of the fermentation.

    Residual sugar
    refers to the natural sugars that have not been converted into alcohol

    Caused by the natural or deliberate interruption of the fermentation.

    residual sugar content

    The residual sugar content must be declared on Austrian wine labels. The values of trocken (dry) and halbtrocken (medium dry) are dependant upon their given acidity levels. The terms are; trocken (dry) up to 9 g/l, halbtrocken (medium dry) up to 18 g/l and lieblich (medium sweet) up to a maximum of 45 g/l, and süß (sweet) relates to all wines above 45 g/l.

    resveratrol
    The substance that is found in red wines and believed to have a positive effect on cardio-vascular diseases.

    englische Übersetzung fehlt!

    retronasal organ
    the connection between the oropharynx and the nasal cavity

    This is where aromatic molecules touch our sensory cells, and we think we are actually tasting the wine, but in fact we are smelling it again.

    reverse osmosis
    a process used to concentrate must

    This is a wine-making operation used to increase the concentration of the must, whereby a filter membrane with a very small pores, so that only water molecules at high pressure can pass through them. This form of concentration (reverse osmosis) has been permitted in the EU for a number of years, and is already a practice employed in Austria as an alternative to chaptalization in red wine production.

    reverse osmosis, vacuum evapouration
    methods used to draw water out of the must, must concentration

    This is a wine-making operation used to increase the concentration of the must, whereby water and grape juice is drawn out of the must. In a vacuum, water begins to evapourate at 25°C to 30°C, without having any negative effect on the aromas of the finished wine. This form of concentration has been permitted in the EU for a number of years, and is already a practice employed in Austria as an alterative to chaptalization in red wine production. Vacuum evapouration is also a process used for the production of alcohol-free wine.

    Rhine or Hock-shaped bottle
    bottle shape

    Refers to the slim and high bottle shape, that was popular in the Rheingau wine-growing region.

    riddling
    important wine-making operation in the production of sparkling wine after the second fermentation in the bottle

    following the second fermentation, the dead lees collect at the base of the bottle. These deposits are gradually riddled into the neck of the bottle, either by machine or by hand, prior to their removal from the bottle.

    Riesling
    white wine variety

    An old variety, that probably originates from a wild vine that has mutated and developed. Regarded as the "King of White Wines", the variety produces wines of outstanding quality in the wine-growing regions around the Danube, with fruity stone fruit aroma, vibrant acidity and mineral spice. Well-aged Riesling wines display tertiary aromas (of petrol) and are capable of keeping at their best for many decades.

    ringer wine

    A colloquial term for a unrelated wine substituted in a blind tasting, and is typically the odd one out.

    rinsing the wine glass
    Ausspülen des Weinglases

    The general term that encourages the taster to rinse the glass out well with wine, to eliminate unwanted, foreign aromas, that might come from a dishwasher, closed cupboard or cardboard box.

    rinsing the wine glass

    The general term that encourages the taster to rinse the glass out well with wine, to eliminate unwanted, foreign aromas, that might come from a dishwasher, closed cupboard or cardboard box.

    ripe

    A wine that offers a certain fullness, without loss of zest or spice, and often associated with yellow (ripe) fruit.

    ripeness

    A description with many meanings, and related to a number of areas. In viticulture, we know of the ripeness of wood and grapes, and we talk of the ripening stages, such as the full ripeness or physiological ripeness, overripeness and also the premature ripening. In vinification, we talk of maturity of a wine before bottling, or bottle maturity and the maturity of a wine. For sommelieres, drinking maturity is an important factor.

    Rivaner
    white wine variety

    This is an early ripening variety with softness and delicate aromas. The crossing was made by the Swiss botanist Hermann Müller from the Swiss canton of Thurgau, and is Riesling x Chasselat de Courtillier (Madeleine Royal). For many years, it was misunderstood to be the crossing of Riesling x Sylvaner, hence the name Rivaner, yet nowadays, the variety is predominantly cultivated for its use in young wines (such as the Junker or Junger Österreicher) and in cases for sweet wines.

    roasted

    roasted spice, that derive from maturation in oak barrels (toasting = barrel is charred with fire) and this taste is passed onto the wine during maturation. The range of toasting is from light to medium to heavy.

    robust

    Describes a firm and powerful wine with distinctive acidity or tannin structure.

    Roesler

    A new crossing created at the Klosterneuburg oenology school nursery from the varieties Zweigelt x (Seyve-Villard 18-402 x Blaufränkisch), that is particularly resistant to fungal vine diseases. This double-crossing is named after Leonhard Roesler (1839 – 1919), who was also a director at the oenology school in Klosterneuburg. The variety is well suited to organic viticulture, and was classified as a quality variety in the year 2000. The wines display a deep, intensive colour, are rich in extract and have a characteristic spice. The variety is a popular blending partner.

    rootstock
    the rootstock onto which European varieties are grafted

    The native American vines or inter-specific hybrid varieties are used for rootstocks, as these are resisitent to phylloxera. The most popular choices in Austria are Kober 5 BB, SO 4, 5 C.

    rosé
    a light, pink-coloured wine made from black grapes

    the colour develops during a speedy pressing of the juice. The longer the maceration, the more intensive the colour. In Austria, the old term "Gleichgepresster" or white-pressed grapes is hardly in use, and in Germany, rosé wines are also known as "Weißherbst".

    rot

    Fungal rot or disease primarily affect the grapes and grape berries. In its destructive form when unripe grapes are infected, it can lead to wine fault (grey rot), yet when the grapes are ripe, it is seen in its benevolent form of noble rot, the prerquisite for noble sweet wines, such as Beerenauslese, Ausbruch and Trockenbeerenauslese.

    rotary vessel
    a drum-like piece of equipment used to move the mush during red wine vinification

    nowadays this piece of equipment has little significance

    Rotburger
    Zweigelt

    Its creater, Prof. Dr. Fritz Zweigelt, successfully crossed Blaufränkisch x St. Laurent in 1922, and paved Austrian red wine history. Up until his death in 1964, the variety was known as Rotburger. Nowadays there are classic and fruity respresentatives of the wine, with cherry and berry aromas, as well as very ripe, extract rich top wines, that display feminine, fruity charm. With plantings of 13 percent of the total Austrian wine-growing region, this is by far the most planted and popular Austrian red wine variety.

    Roter Traminer
    the most common of the aromatic Traminer varieties
    Roter Veltliner
    indigenous white wine variety with a reddish grape skin

    the variety is primarily cultivated in Wagram, but is also found in Kamptal, Kremstal and in the Weinviertel. The old variety demands a great deal of canopy management in the vineyard, and the exciting wines always display robust acidity and aromas of dried fruit.

    Rotgipfler
    indigenous white wine variety in the Thermenregion

    the Rotgipfler is a natural crossing of Traminer x Roter Veltliner, and it gets its name from the reddish, bronze shoot tips. The noble wines from Traiskirchen and Gumpoldskirchen excel with ripe, yet neutral fruit, with delicate herbaceousness and rich sweetness due to high extracts. Occasionally, one can find the blend of Rotgipfler and Zierfandler called "Spätrot-Rotgipfler“.

    rough

    Describes a very dry and bitter wine, with a high proportion of phenolics or youthful tannins, and sometimes the result of too much sulphur.

    round

    describes a harmonious and balanced wine, without any corners or edges

    Rubin Carnuntum
    brand collaboration

    brand association from Carnuntum, that is devoted and specialised in the production of Zweigelt and Blaufränkisch. The approved wines from the members also carry this name.

    Ruländer
    a Pinot variety

    Ruländer was once a common synonym for Grauburgunder (Pinot Gris). The name originates from the German merchant called Ruland from Speyer, who was responsible for introducing this Pinot variety at the beginning of the 18th Century.

    Ruster Ausbruch
    wine speciality from the free town of Rust

    Austrian noble sweet wine produced from noble sweet, shriveled grapes, with a minimum required must weight of 27° KMW.

    rustic

    usually a simple wine without great elegance or finesse, and often with a full-bodied structure.

    RWB
    Rennomierte Weingüter Burgenland

    the 'Renommierte Weingüter Burgenlands' association (literally the renowned, or prestigious wine estates of Burgenland) is a collaboration of the best wine producers in Burgenland, who have proved themselves in quality-orientated viticulture.

  • Saccharomyces
    yeast genus

    The most important type of yeast for fermentation is Saccharomyces Cerevisiae.

    sacramental wine

    The wine for Holy Mass must be produced according to the Canon book of law and naturally made (neither chaptalized nor deacidified). Primarily used for Holy Mass in church.

    Saignée method

    In France, this is known as the Saignée method, and describes the process of removing the must from the red wine mash (partial or first juice) and the remaining solids are left to naturally extract colour and tannin. The first juice can be used to produce rosé wine.

    SALON Österreich Wein
    The most challenging wine competition in Austria.

    The SALON Austrian wine challenge is regarded as the national wine championships for Austrian wines for over two decades, and is the most rigorous wine competition in the country. The 260 members, or winners, are primarily determined through the regional wine tastings (from over 7,000 entries), as well as being nominated by Sommelières and Sommeliers, wine journalists and wine magazines.

    salty

    Tasting impression, that is often perceived in mineral-rich wines.

    Sämling 88
    a new variety created by the German botanist Georg Scheu in 1916

    Georg Scheu probably crossed Riesling with a wild vine. As a quality wine, the Sämling 88 is predominant in the Steiermark, where it is pleasantly fruity. The variety is in its best form as a noble sweet wine, and Beerenauslese and Trockenbeerenauslese fascinate with a wide spectrum of tropical notes, pronounced aromatics and perfect spice.

    Sauvignon Blanc
    white wine variety

    The Sauvignon Blanc is regarded as a shooting star, and not just in the Steiermark. It probably originates from a natural crossing of Traminer x Chenin Blanc. The variety was once known for its predominantly green, pepper-pod like spicy aromas, yet nowadays, a riper style is preferred, and the wines display mature, mineral varietal characters, with riper and complex layers of fruit (blackcurrants, melons) over floral notes (elderflowers). The spectrum of styles range from classic stainless steel tank aged examples, to single vineyard versions with an international touch (MLF, oak barrel maturation). Even the fascinating mixture of both stypes of vinification can thrill wine enthusiasts.

    Scheurebe
    Sämling 88

    Georg Scheu probably crossed Riesling with a wild vine. As a quality wine, the Sämling 88 is predominant in the Steiermark, where it is pleasantly fruity. The variety is in its best form as a noble sweet wine, and Beerenauslese and Trockenbeerenauslese fascinate with a wide spectrum of tropical notes, pronounced aromatics and perfect spice.

    Schilcher
    The pink or onion-skin coloured wine, that is produced exclusively from the Blauer Wildbacher variety.

    The variety is native to the Weststeiermark, and it grows on gneiss and slate soils and develops an often grassy and spicy bouquet, over white and blackcurrant aromas. The palate displays distinctive, robust acidity that supports the fruit and mineral aspects of the wine. The name Schilcher is a protected term for the Steiermark. Further "lively" products from the Blauer Wildbacher variety include the Schilchersturm, Schilcherfrizzante and Schilchersekt.

    Schilfwein

    Wines produced from fully ripened and naturally sugar-rich grapes, that are left to dry on straw or reed mats for a minimum period of three months prior to pressing. After this natural period of concentration (drying of the grapes) the minimum required must weight of 25°KMW is achieved

    secondary aromas
    Applies to all aromas that develop during the vinification and maturation of the wine.

    Includes fermenting aromas, yeasty notes, oak aromas (from barrel maturation) see aroma.

    seedling
    a new vine that is cultivated from a seedling

    A well-known seedling variety is the Sämling 88.

    Seewinkel
    most southerly part of the Neusiedlersee wine-growing regions

    Description for the most southerly part of the Neusiedlersee wine-growing regions in Burgenland. There is a unique microclimate here, due to the multitude of small lakes and ponds.

    Sekt
    Austrian quality sparkling wine, that may only be produced used classified quality grape varieties

    The carbon dioxide must develop either in the bottle or in a tank during fermentation, and the pressure has to be at least 3.5 bar. Sekt may only be produced in Austria by registered producers or contracted Sekt producers. See sparkling wine.

    Sekt dosage
    term used in the vinification of sparkling wine

    The residual sugar contect must be declared on the label as follows: naturherb, brut nature is less than 3 g/l ; extra herb, extra brut: 0 to 6 g/l; herb, brut: less than 12 g/l; extra trocken, extra dry: 12 to 17 g/l; trocken, dry, sec: 17 to 32 g/l; halbtrocken, medium dry, demi sec: 32 to 50 g/l; mild, sweet, doux; at least 50 g/l.

    Selection

    The Austrian term for a rigorous selection of the best wine barrels for a particular wine, tasted using the syphon or pipette. One particularly famous example is the St. Laurent Ausstich from Stift Klosterneuburg.

    Selektion

    This term is a permitted declaration on an Austrian wine label, and conveys a high quality wine, but it is not a specific legal definition. Similar to Ausstich.

    sense of smell

    The oldest sense in the human body, that can differentiate between 10,000 aromas, aided by some 10 million olfactory cells in the olfactory glands in our noses.

    sense of taste

    The taste buds on our tongues each contain 50 - 100 sensory cells, and these chemical stimuli are passed onto our brains. In wine tasting, we talk about the sweetness, the acidity, tannins, maturity of the wine, and body as well as its extract, alcohol, length and harmony, amongst other things.

    sensory analysis
    sensory evaluation

    The general term used to describe the total sensory appreciation of a wine. In wine sensory analysis, the senses of sight, smell and taste play a central role.

    Separator
    centrifuge

    A piece of equipment that rotates, removing particles and deposits in must or wine, called a separator or centrifuge.

    serving temperature

    Temperature plays a central role in the vinification (temperature of the fermentation), in the storage of wine (wine cellar temperature) and particularly in the restaurants. The pleasure of enjoying a wine is defined by the serving temperature and correct drinking temperature of the wine.

    sharp

    Describes an aggresive wine with either unbalanced acidity, too much alcohol or bitter, sharp tannins.

    sharp

    Describes a wine with unbalanced, aggressive or unripe acidity.

    sheet filter
    Wine-making operation with must and wine to remove unwanted particles.

    The following types of filters are common; depth or sheet filtration, kieselguhr, membrane or cartridge filters, rotary drum vacuum filter, pressure leaf filter, centrifugation, cross flow or tangential filtration.

    Sherry note
    wine fault

    When the must or wine compounds react with oxygen, generally described as a Sherry tone or oxidation.

    Shiraz

    The Shiraz is at home in the south of France, in the wine-growing region of the Rhône valley, from where it then travelled the globe, arriving in Australia, where it is called Shiraz. The red wine variety became an officially classified Austrian quality grape variety in 2001. The wines display intensive and complex aromas of herbaceous elements, such as herbs, ivy and eucalyptus, along with pepper-pod spice, making them a perfect choice for maturation in small oak barrels with long-term aging potential.

    shoot

    The young shoot or growth of a vine.

    short

    Describes a wine with little length and a short aftertaste.

    short

    The wine lacks length and had no lasting aftertaste.

    Silberberg

    Viticultural and oenology school in the Südsteiermark.

    silky
    supple

    Refers to a soft, silky and balanced wine.

    Silvaner
    old European quality grape variety

    A natural crossing of Traminer x Österreichisch-Weiß, that now has little significance in Austria, but is widespread in Germany, where it is called Silvaner. The wines are quite neutral and soft, yet make great food wines.

    sinewy

    Describes a wine with lively, vibrant acidic zest and extract, without seeming sharp or harsh.

    Single Vineyard
    Cru or site

    German language term for vineyard.

    slate
    type of soil

    Also called shale or schist, this is a brittle stone that retains warmth, and this type of soils gives the wine a minerally touch.

    slightly sparkling wine
    a sparkling wine that is primarily produced with the tank method or impregnated with carbon dioxide

    This slightly sparkling wine is often called Perlwein or Frizzante in Austria, and must have at least 1 bar and a maximum of 2.5 bar of pressure.

    sloping site

    A vineyard site with a steep incline or gradient.

    Smaragd
    the highest of the three quality categories in the Wachau

    Description for dry, unchaptalized wines, made from physiologically ripe grapes with an alcohol level of 12.5% by volume. The description resembles the emerald-green lizard, that feels quite at home on the vineyard terraces of the Wachau. See also Steinfeder and Federspiel.

    smell or taste of grapes

    Describes the aromatic components, which reflect the primary aromas of the variety (e.g. Muscat).

    smoky

    An aroma or taste that is reminiscent of smoke, frequent in new oak barrels (new oak or heavy toasting).

    smooth

    the wine tastes smooth, or round, and harmonious

    smooth
    supple, elegant

    Elegant, that can also be styled, or influenced by blending or deacidification.

    SO2
    sulphur dioxide

    Refers to the chemical element used as a reduction and sterilising agent in viticulture and vinification, and that is available in solid, liquid and gaseous forms. In winemaking, sulphur in the form of sulphur dioxide (SO2) and sulphurous acid (H2SO3) are the required chemical aids. There is a maximum legally permitted restriction as well as a chemical analysis for the contents of free and bound sulphur dioxide and total sulphur.

    soft

    Wine with soft, mild acidity.

    soft

    Describes a soft, mild wine without pronounced acidity or dominating tannic taste.

    soil (structure)

    The composition of the soil is one of the three most important quality factors in viticulture, along with the vineyard and microclimate. The A, B and C levels are differentiated. In Austria, the following soil types prevail, loess, sand, loam/clay,lime, primary rock, slate/schist, limestone, brown earth, black earth and basalt.

    Sommelier
    male wine expert

    The Sommelier is an important advisor on all that is related to wine and cuisine. As a wine waiter, or waitress, the prerequisite is a sound knowledge in the fields of cheese, coffee, beer and cigars. Other areas of responsibility include purchasing, the compilation and design of the wine list, waiting and making recommendations (especiallty food and wine combinations). In the Austrian WIFI vocational colleges, there is a three tier educational programme on offer, from Wine Expert, Sommelier and culminating in the Diplomsommelier/Diplomsommelière qualification.

    Sommerlière
    female wine expert

    The Sommeliére is an important advisor on all that is related to wine and cuisine. As a wine waiter, or waitress, the prerequisite is a sound knowledge in the fields of cheese, coffee, beer and cigars. Other areas of responsibility include purchasing, the compilation and design of the wine list, waiting and making recommendations (especiallty food and wine combinations). In the Austrian WIFI vocational colleges, there is a three tier educational programme on offer, from Wine Expert, Sommelier and culminating in the Diplomsommelier/Diplomsommelière qualification.

    sparkling

    Wine or sparkling wine that contains a perceptible amount of carbon dioxide.

    sparkling

    A lightly carbonated wine, that tingles on the tongue, and also a characteristic of some young wines.

    Sparkling wine
    the general term for wine, that contains pressurised carbon dioxide

    The visual evidence for sparkling wine is the effervescence of bubbles when opened and poured, and the mousseux on the palate. We differentiate between various production methods, such as the fermentation in the bottle (classic method), the transvasement method (filtering off the lees) and tank fermentation (Méthode Charmat). Slightly sparkling wine is usually produced by impregnating carbon dioxide. In Austria, the production of Sekt as a quality sparkling wine is very important, and the term Hauersekt (vintner's Sekt) is protected for Austrian use.

    Spätlese
    wine produced from fully ripened grapes with a minimum must weight of 19° KMW

    wine produced from fully ripened grapes with a minimum must weight of 19° KMW, see Prädikatswein.

    Spätrot
    synonym for Zierfandler

    Indigenous and rare variety in the Thermenregion also known as the Spätrot. Its name originates from its reddish colour grapes of this late-ripening variety. The Zierfandler proves to be quite a challenge in the vineyard, as it ripens late but starts to rot early. The wines are always rich in extract, racy and spicy with fruity and herbaceous characters. The sweet or dessert Zierfandler wines are in top form and are proven to long-term aging potential. The Zierfandler is sometimes still cultivated as a field blend or as a wine blend with the Rotgipfler variety, resulting in the "Spätrot-Rotgipfler“ wine.

    Spätrot-Rotgipfler
    The blend or field blend (Gemischte Satz) made from both the varieties Zierfandler (Spätrot) and Rotgipfler in the Thermenregion
    spicy

    Describes a wine with elegant and enticing fruity acidity.

    spicy

    Describes a wine that smells or tastes of spice, for example in wine terminology, the aroma of pepper, cinnamon or vanilla.

    spontaneous fermentation

    Natural, wild yeasts are used to trigger off the fermentation (without the addition of cultivated yeasts).

    spritzy

    Lively and fresh wine, with vibrant, natural carbon dioxide.

    spur

    Defined type of pruning the vine shoots (every 2-3 buds).

    St Martin‘s Day (11 November)

    A custom celebrating the Patron Saint Martin on 11 November, especially in Burgenland.

    St. Laurent
    Austrian red wine variety

    The indigenous Austrian red wine variety is a member of the Pinot varieties, and is known for being quite demanding and difficult in the vineyard. The Burgundermacher is a united group of winemakers based in the Thermenregion, who along with some red wine specialists in Burgenland, have produced some concentrated St. Laurent wines, oozing with dark fruit, velvety elegance and a fine taste of bitter chocolate and herbs. Its name originates from the Name Day of the Patron Saint St Laurenz (10 August), the date when the grapes apparently begin to change colour. The world's largest St. Laurent producer is Stift Klosterneuburg, with some 40 hectares planted in the Ried Stiftsbreite vineyard in Tattendorf.

    stainless steel tank
    wine tank or vat

    Tanks made from stainless steel  in modern cellars for the vinification and maturation, particularly during the production of white wine, to retain the fresh, fruity characters.

    stalk
    part of the grape

    The stalks are part of the grapes, and with the stem, is usually removed prior to vinification.

    standard Bordeaux bottle
    shape of the typical Bordeaux wine bottle

    This bottle form originates from Bordeaux, where ist is the most common shape. It is popular in Austria for both red and white wine.

    State control number

    The State control number is given to all Austrian quality wines following a chemical analysis and a sensory tasting (by a tasting commission). It is recognisable on the label with its letter and number combination, for example, N 12345/10.

    State control number

    This number distinguishes Austrian quality wines and high quality sweet wines, and is awarded following the positive result of a chemical analysis and a sensory tasting (by a qualified tasting commission). The number is recognisable on the wine label as a combination of letters and numbers, such as N 12345/10.

    State control number

    The State control number is given to all Austrian quality wines following a chemical analysis and a sensory tasting (by a tasting commission). It is recognisable on the label with its letter and number combination, for example, N 12345/10.

    State wine authorities
    Wine inspection authorities in Austria

    The wine inspection authorities in Eisenstadt and Klosterneuburg.

    Staubiger
    refers to a young, still cloudy wine
    steely

    Describes a tight, well structured and sometimes hard wine. For white wines, the harsh acidity sometimes draws out metallic associations, and a Blaufränkisch from Eisenberg in Südburgenland can also seem steely.

    steep inclined site
    refers to a sloped vineyard site with a gradient of at least 26%

    In Austria, these vineyards are primarily situated in the Wachau and in the Steiermark.

    Steiermark (Styria)
    generic wine-growing region

    The Steiermark is Austria's third largest generic wine-growing appellation. The wide range of varieties and diversity of the 'terroir' between the wine-growing regions of Südoststeiermark and Südsteiermark is quite remarkable. It is this distinctiveness between the countryside and the styles of wines that give the Steiermark its charm. Statistically, Welschriesling is the most widespread variety, yet its reputation is dominated by Sauvignon blanc. The Weststeiermark has been able to distinguish itself as being Schilcherland.

    Steinfeder
    the protected description for a dry, light-bodied wine from the Vinea Wachau Nobilis Districtus association, with a maximum alcohol content of 11.5% by volume

    The name comes from the local "Steinfedergras" (Stipa pinnata), a grass which grows near the vines in the terraced vineyards, and is light like a feather, and delicately fragrant; just like the wine named after it. See also Federspiel and Smaragd.

    Steirerland
    the protected geographical indication for Landwein (land wine), that includes the whole of the Federal state of Styria
    Steirischer Junker
    wine brand in the Steiermark

    The ‘Junker‘ is a registered trademark for the first wines from the Steiermark (since 1995), and the logo is a man wearing the typically Styrian hat with a distinctive feather. The officially Junker presentation from over 300 producers occurs at the beginning of November.

    sticky

    A broad wine that seems to lack finesse, and is often the case when a wine has undergone harsh deacidification.

    still wine

    Describes a wine with little or no carbon dioxide, that (contrary to sparkling or slightly sparkling wines) has neither a mousseaux nor bubbles.

    STK
    Steirische Klassik association

    The full name of the acronym STK is "Steirische Terroir- und Klassikweingüter“. It is an association made up of the regions very best producers, who have devised their own quality seal of approval and classification of single vineyards, and essentially created the wine label description "Steirische Klassik“.

    Strohwein

    Wines produced from fully ripened and naturally sugar-rich grapes, that are left to dry on straw or reed mats for a minimum period of three months prior to pressing. After this natural period of concentration (drying of the grapes) the minimum required must weight of 25°KMW is achieved.

    structured

    Wine with a robust taste, volume and balanced structure, supported by lingering acidity and/or tannins, as well as balanced alcohol and extract.

    stuck fermentation

    If the temperature of the fermentation is too high, or the yeasts are too weak, then it can happen that the fermentation will accidentally stop, or become stuck, or left with unwanted residual sugar content.

    Sturm
    partially fermented grape must, that may only produced using Austrian grapes

    Sturm may only be sold between 1 August and 31 December of the current vintage, and in a “state of fermentation”. The term “Sturm” is protected for use in Austria.

    style
    The subjective signature of a winemaker during vinification.
    subscription

    The practice of buying wine futures, especially with expensive or sought after wines, that are sold when they are often still maturing in the barrel.

    Südoststeiermark
    wine-growing region

    A number of small wine islands on the slopes of extinct volcanoes, lend special flair to the landscape of Southeastern Styria. Growing in the approx. 1,400 hectares of vineyards here is an extensive range of grape varietiesRead more

    Südsteiermark
    wine-growing region

    Southern Styria’s vineyards lacing steep slopes characterize one of the world’s most charming wine landscapes. Providing a spectacular view is the South Styrian Wine Road. Read more

    sugar

    Grapes contain the natural form of sugar as fructose and glucose. Sugar beet (saccharose) may be added to the must (with legal maximum limits), see chaptalization. The unfermented sugar value (residual sugar) must be declared in its respective term on the label.

    sulphate
    chemical element

    Refers to the chemical element used as a reducing and sterilising agent in viticulture and vinification, and that is available in solid, liquid and gaseous forms. In winemaking, sulphur in the form of sulphur dioxide (SO2) and sulphurous acid (H2SO3) are the required chemical aids. There is a maximum legally permitted restriction as well as a chemical analysis for the contents of free and bound sulphur dioxide and total sulphur.

    sulphur
    chemical element

    Refers to the chemical element used as a reducing and sterilising agent in viticulture and vinification, and that is available in solid, liquid and gaseous forms. In winemaking, sulphur in the form of sulphur dioxide (SO2) and sulphurous acid (H2SO3) are the required chemical aids. There is a maximum legally permitted restriction as well as a chemical analysis for the contents of free and bound sulphur dioxide and total sulphur.

    summer wine

    generally refers to a simple, easy drinking wine for the warm season, low in alcohol and with vibrant acidity

    sun-burn

    Visual evidence of excessive sunshine on individual grapes, leaving the finished wine with a bitter, phenolic taste.

    sur lie
    aging on lees

    The French expression of aging the wine on its lees.

    Süßmostreserve

    Unfermented grape must, made stable after a special process, is added to the wine prior to bottling, in order to obtain the desired residual sugar. This practice is (compared to Germany) a practice rare in Austria, and is prohibited from the Kabinett quality category and above.

    Süßreserve

    Unfermented grape must, made stable after a special process, is added to the wine prior to bottling, in order to obtain the desired residual sugar. This practice is (compared to Germany) a practice rare in Austria, and is prohibited from the Kabinett quality category and above.

    sustainable viticulture
    common term for environmentally friendly viticulture

    Not to be confused with the more rigorous certified organic viticulture, see also integrated viticulture.

    sweet

    The taste category for wines with 45 g/l residual sugar and above.

    sweet wine
    common term for a wine with high residual sugar

    These include the Prädikatsweine, or sweet wines, such as Auslese, Beerenauslese, Trockenbeerenauslese or dessert wines.

    sweetening

    In order to give wine its desired residual sugar content, the producer is allowed to add concentrated grape must (in the form of concentrate) or rectified concentrated grape must (RCGM) to the grape must. Austrian Landwein (land wine) and Qualitätswein (quality wine) may admittedly be sweetened by a maximum of 15 g/l, yet this is prohibited from the Kabinett quality category and above.

    Sylvaner
    old European quality grape variety

    A natural crossing of Traminer x Österreichisch-Weiß, that now has little significance in Austria, but is widespread in Germany, where it is called Silvaner. The wines are quite neutral and soft, yet make great food wines.

    Synonym
    describes a word having the same or nearly the same meaning as another

    Well-known synonyms in varieties are, for example, RivanerMüller Thurgau, Grauburgunder – Pinot Gris – Ruländer, Zierfandler – Spätrot, and so on.

    Syrah

    Syrah is at home in the south of France, in the wine-growing region of the Rhône valley, from where it then travelled the globe, arriving in Australia, where it is called Shiraz. The red wine variety became an officially classified Austrian quality grape variety in 2001. The wines display intensive and complex aromas of herbaceous elements, such as herbs, ivy and eucalyptus, along with pepper-pod spice, making them a perfect choice for maturation in small oak barrels with long-term aging potential.

  • table grapes
    grapes that are cultivated for eating and not for winemaking
    table wine

    The old description for the lowest category of quality wine, that is now known as wines without protected geographical indication, or simply "wine". The EU clearly gives guidlines to the production of wine for this category. In Austria, wine (previously table wine) has very little signififcance on the market.

    table wine
    common term usually for a simple wine, served with food
    tank fermentation
    a method in producing sparkling wine

    Also known as Méthode Charmat.

    tannin
    phenolics

    Tannins (a type of polyphenols= include the grape skins, stems, pips and even oak that influence the taste of the wine.

    tannin structure

    Most significant with the firmness of red wines, which depend upon tannins on the palate. The tannin structure can be velvety, harmonious, ripe and lasting. If the tannins are underripe, the wine often appears sharp, bitter and astringent.

    tar aroma

    Certain, often mature red wine, will sometimes have an aroma of tar, bitumen or asphalt, or abrasion of rubber.

    tartaric acid
    one of the most important components of the grape, the must and the wine

    There are many different acidities, the most significant are tartaric acid and malic acid. Other important types of acidities are citric acid, acetic acid succinic acid.

    tartaric acid crystals

    Refers to the salts of tartaric acid, that form in the shape of tartrates or crystals in the bottom of the container (either tank, barrel or bottle). These tartrates are completely colourless and odourless, and are not regarded as a wine fault. However, it is a recommendation to pour a wine that has tartrates, with care.

    tartrate crystals

    Refers to the salts of tartaric acid, that form in the shape of tartrates or crystals in the bottom of the container (either tank, barrel or bottle). These tartrates are completely colourless and odourless, and are not regarded as a wine fault. However, it is recommended to pour a wine that has tartrates, with care.

    taste

    Refers to the specific perception of the wine on the tongue, and the common term for the total impression that the wine leaves on the palate. This includes the five senses of sweet, sour, salty, bitter and umami, as well as the temperature, surface character, density, and so on.

    taste of wood (or oak)
    taste impression

    Aromas that originate from a new or relatively new small oak barrel. In the case of lightly toasted barrels, or large oak casks, this taste or oak or wood can be a negative description.

    Tastevin

    A traditional, small and very shallow silver cup used to taste a wine, yet this is now quite old fashioned and hardly used. Nowadays, the tastevin has more symbolic character and is only a visual indication of a sommelier.

    tasting
    Method of analysing and assessing wine, purely on the basis of using our perception of colour, aroma and taste.

    There are the following types of tastings: blind tastings, vertical tastings (different vintages from one wine), commented tastings, tastings where wines are rated in a competition, a wine quiz, and so on.

    tasting glass

    Special wine glas with a stem, usually tulip-shaped, used when tasting wine.

    Tasting room
    a room within the wine estate that is designated for the tasting and sale of wine

    A room within the wine estate that is designated for the tasting and sale of wine, and in Austria, these tasting rooms are often quite impressive and architecturally aesthetic.

    tasty wines
    refers to highly aromatic wines

    Such as Gelber Muskateller (Muscat), Muskat-Ottonel, Sauvignon Blanc, Traminer and so on.

    TBA
    the short description for Trockenbeerenauslese
    TCA
    trichloroanisole

    A wine fault that displays an undesirable mouldy, musty smell and taste. The cause is the presence of trichloroanisole (TCA), and we differentiate between the classic (unmistakable) cork taint, and a subtle taste of cork, and the latter often suppresses the fruit of the wine and can be difficult to detect.

    tears
    church windows

    The colloquial term for church windows, or the legs of a wine with high extract, that develop on the inside surface of the wine glass.

    teinturier wine
    colour intensifier

    A red wine variety that is blended with other red wines just for its colour benefit, in Austria a common example would be the Blauburger.

    temperature

    Temperature plays a central role in the vinification (temperature of the fermentation), in the storage of wine (wine cellar temperature) and particularly in the restaurants. The pleasure of enjoying a wine is defined by the serving temperature and correct drinking temperature of the wine.

    temperature control
    used to control the fermentation
    terraces

    If the slope incline is too steep for standard vine cultivation, then terraces are built, known as terrace viticulture. Small parcels were traditionally constructed with dry-stone alling and stone steps, and this is still a common feature in the Wachau.

    terroir
    the combination of several factors, above all the soil structure, vineyard site and microclimate, as well as origin, vineyard management, vinification and so on



    Tertiärbukett
    Positive and pleasant aromatic impression that originally derive from the grapes

    "The various aroma components, ranging from floral, fruity, spicy and so on, are listed in the aroma wheel. Both the bouquet in the nose and the retronasal aroma perception at the back of the throat, often described in English as the flavour.
    We sub-divide the aromas into three categories, the primary, secondary and tertiary aromas or bouquet. Primary aromas refer to the fruit flavour components found in the grape, and which upon tasting, are recognisable with aromas present in the finished wine. We speak of wine-like or grapey aromas, and often you can recognise the character of the grape variety from a particular scent of berries, fruit, petals or flower, for example the intense rose petal aroma in Traminer. The secondary aromas come from the winery, and are aromatic components that derive from grape handling, fermentation and the maturation of the wine. You can even refer to the smell of fermentation, or detect wine faults (such as too much sulphur dioxide) yet the more desirable aromas include roasting or toasting and vanilla from oak barrel aging. The tertiary aromas are those that develop with bottle aging, a typical example being the development of the petrol note with maturing Riesling. Again, wine faults may also be included, the most common being cork taint."

    tertiary aromas
    Positive and pleasant aromatic impression that originally derive from the grapes

    "The various aroma components, ranging from floral, fruity, spicy and so on, are listed in the aroma wheel. Both the bouquet in the nose and the retronasal aroma perception at the back of the throat, often described in English as the flavour.
    We sub-divide the aromas into three categories, the primary, secondary and tertiary aromas or bouquet. Primary aromas refer to the fruit flavour components found in the grape, and which upon tasting, are recognisable with aromas present in the finished wine. We speak of wine-like or grapey aromas, and often you can recognise the character of the grape variety from a particular scent of berries, fruit, petals or flower, for example the intense rose petal aroma in Traminer. The secondary aromas come from the winery, and are aromatic components that derive from grape handling, fermentation and the maturation of the wine. You can even refer to the smell of fermentation, or detect wine faults (such as too much sulphur dioxide) yet the more desirable aromas include roasting or toasting and vanilla from oak barrel aging. The tertiary aromas are those that develop with bottle aging, a typical example being the development of the petrol note with maturing Riesling. Again, wine faults may also be included, the most common being cork taint."

    texture
    a sensory term for a wine that describes a tactile impression on the palate

    Surface character.

    the flowering of the vine
    flowering

    The flowering of the vine prior to the development of the grapes.

    The French Paradox
    examination regarding the positive health benefits of drinking red wine

    The French Paradox was a massive medical experiment in the 1990s, that concluded that regular and moderate consumption of red wine, particularly in the south of France, drastically reduces the death rate of cardiovascular disease.

    Thermenregion
    wine-growing region

    Here, 2.196 hectares of vineyards lie at the edge of the Vienna Woods. In the northern section, fruit driven, yet full-bodied white wine dominates with the indigenous varieties Zierfandler and Rotgipfler. Read more


    Thermenwinzer
    the name of a vintner association

    Leading producers in the Thermenregion represent their local and indigenous varietal specialities in an exemplary manner.

    thin
    light

    A light-bodied wine that lacks extract and alcohol.

    tipsy

    A colloquial, jovial word for becoming "merry".

    tired

    A tasting description, the wine is past its best and is showing age, has lost its freshness and the acidity has decreased.

    to add sulphur

    Sulphur is used in the most modern types of vinification and is usually found in liquid form and added to the wine from a pressurised bottles. Sulphur can also be used in winemaking from its solid form (e.g. sulphur sticks) or as a gas or powder. If sulphur is not added to a wine, or if the wine is not sulphurized, then it would rapidly oxidise and become unpleasant to drink very quickly. Red wines generally require less sulphur compared with white or sweet wines, because their natural preservative is found in the tannins.

    to bring to the right temperature

    The same meaning as chambrer, the French term that describes preparing the wine to the correct termperature. (Chambre = room).


    to concentrate
    to draw water out of the must, must concentration

    this is a wine-making operation used to increase the concentration of the must, whereby water and grape juice is drawn out of the must. In a vacuum, water begins to evapourate at 25°C to 30°C, without having any negative effect on the aromas of the finished wine. This form of concentration has been permitted in the EU for a number of years, and is already a practice employed in Austria as an alterative to chaptalization in red wine production. Vacuum evapouration is also a process used for the production of alcohol-free wine.

    to decant (wine)
    pouring wine into another vessel

    Prior to serving, the wine is poured into a carafe or decanter, to remove the wine from its sediment. Should the wine not have any sediment or dregs, and only requires agitation to allow the aromas to evolve, then we call this process aeration.

    to fortify
    addition of alcohol

    Used in the production of fortified wines, by adding brandy to arrest the fermenting grape must.

    to fortify

    During the production of fortified wines, a spirit is added to the fermenting must to improve its shelf life. Popular fortified wines include port, sherry, madeira and so on.

    to graft

    Describes the grafting of European scions onto the phylloxera resistent rootstocks by practised grafters in vine nurseries.

    to impregnate
    artificial impregnation or addition of carbon dioxide

    The impregnation of carbon dioxide is a common and efficient practice in the production of sparkling wine. The wine label must specify, that the sparkling wine was produced using added carbon dioxide.

    to make wine, to crush

    Wine-making operation when the must is separated from the solid grapes or mash.

    to mulch, to add mulch
    agricultural work in the vineyard

    Agricultural work in the vineyard, in which the soil is covered with compost and mulch (organic materials such as grass-cuttings, straw and so on). This is later worked into the soil to improve its overall condition and increase the humus content.

    to neutralise (new wooden casks)
    the process of neutralising a new wooden wine cask or wine container, so that it is clean before it is filled with a must or wine

    This is achieved by water, steam or sterilisation. If the oak barrels are not toasted, and will eliminate the unripe "green" note (describes in German as Neuerl, or "new" taste). The same process applies to wine glasses or decanters, which are rinsed through either with water or a small measure of wine.

    to press

    The wine-making operation of removing the must from the solid grape material or grape pomace.

    to prune
    canopy management in the vineyard

    Refers to canopy management, and the cutting or pruning of the overhanging (lateral) shoots.

    to rack

    The young wine is racked, or removed from the gross lees or yeasts.

    to rack
    the racking of the clear wine from the sediment in a tank or barrel

    Wine-making operation of removing the clear wine from the settled sediment or lees.

    to rack

    Must or wine is removed from one tank or barrel, and either by means of gravity or pumping, is transferred into another. Therefore the wine is removed from its sediment, or is deliberately exposed to atmospheric oxygen (especially with red wine vinification).

    to spit

    It is practice to spit out the tasted wine, as opposed to swallowing it, during professional, prolonged wine tastings.

    to spray (the vines)

    The common term for spraying the vines with plant protective sprays (e.g. pesticides).

    to sterilise

    Harmful micro organisms in wine, or in the vinification equipment, are elimitated or removed.

    to stop

    Arresting the fermentation, to retain the natural residual sugar.

    to store, storage, aging

    Wine that are yet to reach their peak in maturity require storage to enable them to age. The most ideal conditions are dark, cool and not to dry cellars. Alternatively, a modern wine refrigerator will replicate these conditions.

    to thin out
    reducing the yield

    To improve quality and reduce yield, a defined number of unripe grapes are removed in the so-called green harvest.

    to tip, or prune
    canopy management in the vineyard

    Refers to canopy management, and the cutting or pruning of the overhanging (lateral) shoots.

    Toasting

    Roasted spice, that derive from maturation in oak barrels (toasting = barrel is charred with fire) and this taste is passed onto the wine during maturation. The range of toasting is from light to medium to heavy.

    topography
    the name of a vintner association

    Association of vintners that is primarily based in the wine-growing regions of Kremstal and Kamptal in Niederösterreich. Its members developed the classification system of the single vineyards.

    topping up

    Wine in tanks or barrels evaporates, and needs to be regularly topped, or filled up, to avoid unwanted oxidation.

    total acidity

    The total acidity is one of the most important elements of the grape, the must and the wine. There are numerous acidities, the most common being tartaric acid and malic acid. Other important acidities include citric acid, acetic acid and succinic acid.

    total alcohol
    the sum of the alcohol by volume and the unfermented residual sugars of the potential alcohol

    Common term for ethanol. During the process of fermentation, the sugars are converted partially or completely into alcohol. We differ between alcohol by volume (as declared on the label) with potential alcohol (the theoretical value if the sugars were allowed to ferment dry) and total alcohol (the sum of available and potential alcohol).

    total extract
    the total of all non-volative solids in the wine,

    The total of all non-volative solids in the wine, including sugar, colour, tannin, acidity, traces of minerals, protein, and glycerine. If the sugars were to be removed, we call this the sugar-free extract of the wine. The value is always given in grams per litre (g/l).

    Traditionsweingüter
    the name of a vintner association

    Association of vintners that is primarily based in the wine-growing regions of Kremstal and Kamptal in Niederösterreich. Its members developed the classification system of the single vineyards.

    Training system or form
    choice of training or trellis systems in the vineyard

    The choice of training system for the vines in the vineyard. The most widespread form of training system is wire training (Drahtrahmenerziehung), an offshoot being Lenz Moser's high culture (Hochkultur) training system, that replaced the once very popular bush vine cultivation.

    Traisental
    wine-growing region

    Austria’s youngest wine-growing area is also one of its smallest (790 ha). The best producers with their typically spicy Traisental DAC Grüner Veltliner and Rieslings have gained international accolades.  Read more

    Traisental DAC

    The designation and marketing term for regionally typical Grüner Veltliner and Riesling that is permitted from the 2007 vintage for the Klassik (classic) and Reserve categories.

    Traminer
    white wine variety

    The Traminer is an ancient variety that has developed from a wild vine crossing, and is internationally widespread. There are three Traminer varieties in Austria, the Roter Traminer, Gelber Traminer and the Gewürztraminer, and at least one is cultivated in all of the wine-growing regions. The volcanic soils of the Südoststeiermark provide the optimum conditions for this aromatic variety. The wines display a pronounced range of aromas, often reminiscent of wild roses and citrus fruit. Traminer wines are usually soft and always rich in extract, with a delicate residual sugar that is in balance with a bitterness so typical of the variety. Traminer can also produce sweet wines with great aging potential.

    transvasement method
    a compromise of bottle and tank fermentation

    In this method of sparkling wine production, the second fermentation indeed occurs in the bottle, but the removal of the lees is performed via filtration in a tank.

    trocken
    dry

    EU wine legislation has the following regulations for dryness: up to 4 g/l residual sugar, or up to a maximum of 9 g/l if the total acidity is no more than 2 g/l below the value of the residual sugar. It is perhaps easier to remember acidity + 2 (max. 9 g/l residual sugar).

    Trockenbeerenauslese
    highest category of sweet wine

    A berry selection of predominantly noble sweet, largely shrunken grapes with a minimum must weight of 30° KMW.

    Tronçais
    choice of oak with narrow pores, used in the contruction of small oak barrels
    typicity

    The virtue of wines, whose aromas and flavours are typical of a certain varietal or origin character.

  • Uhudler
    wine made from American native vines or inter-specific hybrid varieties

    Uhudler is the umbrella term for these diverse varieties, that are used in the cultivation of this type of wine (predominantly in the wine-growing region of Südburgenland). The wines display pronounded aromas of wild wood strawberries and raspberry.

    ullage
    natural evaporation of wine, especially from oak barrels

    The smaller the barrel, the larger or greater the evaporation of the liquid, due to the larger percentage of surface area to volume. If wine bottles are stored for a long period of time, the wine may also evaporate.

    unbalanced

    A tasting term that refers to the unbalanced or unharmonious taste of a wine, often when the acidity or tannins are too sharp or dominant.

    unclean

    Refers to a slightly faulty wine, where the aromas do not seem clean.

    unfiltered

    High quality wines (particularly red wines) are not often filtered, thus preserving its taste and natural colour. To support the natural stabilisation of such wines, a longer maturation in oak is often recommended.

    ungrafted vines
    refers to vines that are planted on their original rootstocks

    There are still some isolated places in Austria, where there are ungrafted vines that were not devastated by phylloxera. Inter-specific hybrids are also ungrafted vines.

    unharmonious
    describes an unbalanced wine lacking harmony

    Often a description for youthful wines that are not yet approachable, or where the individual components (alcohol, acidity, tannin and residual sugar) appear unbalanced on the palate.

    unpleasant lactic aroma

    A wine fault that is often caused by an improper malolactic fermentation. The wine displays an unpleasant aroma of milk, butter, yoghurt or cheese.

    unripe

    An unripe wine with a grass-like character.

    untypical aging note
    untypical aging aroma

    Regarded as a wine fault, UTA describes slightly musty, rapidly developed and non-expressive aromas. The probable causes are usually poor vine nourishment, vine stress or too high a yield.

  • vacuum evaporation
    a method of concentrating must

    This is a wine-making operation used to increase the concentration of the must, whereby water and grape juice is drawn out of the must. In a vacuum, water begins to evapourate at 25°C to 30°C, without having any negative effect on the aromas of the finished wine. This form of concentration (reverse osmosis) has been permitted in the EU for a number of years, and is already a practice employed in Austria as an alternative to chaptalization in red wine production. Vacuum evapouration is also a process used for the production of alcohol-free wine.

    vanilla
    sweet and spicy aroma and taste impression

    An aroma usually related to oak barrel maturation.

    varietal aromas
    The virtues of wine, and the aromas that are reminiscent of varietal character.

    e.g. stone fruit bouquet for Riesling, the rose petal fragrance in Traminer

    varieties

    There are eleven ampelography groups sigificant in the Vitis vinifera subspecies. The main differences are between early and late ripening varieties. There are also categories for indigenous and international varieties. In Austria, the following grapes varietes are classified for the production of Quality Wine. White wine varieties: Bouvier, Chardonnay (Morillon), Frühroter Veltliner (Malvasier), Furmint, Goldburger, Grauer Burgunder (Pinot Gris, Ruländer), Grüner Veltliner (Weißgipfler), Jubiläumsrebe, Müller-Thurgau (Rivaner), Muskateller (Gelber Muskateller, Roter Muskateller), Muskat-Ottonel, Neuburger, Roter Veltliner, Rotgipfler, Sauvignon Blanc, Scheurebe (Sämling 88), Sylvaner (Grüner Sylvaner), Traminer (Gewürztraminer, Roter Traminer), Weißer Burgunder (Weißburgunder, Pinot Blanc, Klevner), Weißer Riesling (Riesling, Rheinriesling), Welschriesling and Zierfandler (Spätrot). The red wine varieties are: Blauburger, Blauer Burgunder (Blauer Spätburgunder, Blauburgunder, Pinot Noir), Blauer Portugieser, Blauer Wildbacher, Blaufränkisch, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Rathay, Roesler, St. Laurent, Syrah and Zweigelt (Blauer Zweigelt, Rotburger).

    vat
    oak vat or cask

    Alarge open-topped oak vessel or vat, usually used for red wine fermentation.

    velvety

    A description of red wine with a soft, supple taste with harmonious tannins.

    verjuice
    the unfermented juice from harvested, yet unripe grapes, is known as Verjuice (or green juice)

    Is used to carry the acidity in an array of recipies, a natural remedy, and is enjoying a revival as an alternative to vinegar.

    vermouth

    Refers to an aromatised wine with the bitter oil of the vermouth plant, often used as an aperitif.

    vertical tasting
    method of analysing and assessing wine, purely on the basis of using our perception of colour, aroma and taste

    There are the following types of tastings, blind tastings, vertical tastings (different vintages from one wine), commented tastings, tastings where wine are rated in a competition, a wine quiz, and so on.

    vine

    The vine refers to both the scion, that is above ground (European quality variety), and the rootstock. Only the one year old vine wood can produce grapes. Older vines that give a lower yield, but guarantee a higher quality are particularly favoured.

    vine breeding
    The determined manipulation into the nature of a vine and intervening to result in reproduction.

    Crossings always result in new cultivated vines.

    vine density
    the number of vines planted within a defined vineyard surface area

    In Austria, the vine density is usually about 5,000 vines per hectare.

    vine diseases

    Vine illnesses and diseases, as well as the negative effects of pests, can be caused by a fungus (downy and powdery mildrew, botrytis, rotbrenner and esca), viruses (stunted growth, leaf roll), bacteria (crown gall), grapevine pest (phylloxera, the grape caterpillar) or nutrient difficiency (chlorosis, bunch stem necrosis).

    vine rows

    The structure of the rows of vines in the vineyard.

    Vine training system
    training system for vines in the vineyard

    The type of vine training system that is widespread in Austria, using wires. One particular wire system is Lenz Moser‘s Hochkultur, or high culture training system, that replaced the widespread cultivation of Gobelet or bush vine training.

    Vinea Wachau
    Quality orientated vintner association in the Wachau wine-growing region, established in 1983.

    The original name is "Vinea Wachau Nobilis Districtus“, and is a quality-orientated association. Its creators established the three wine categories for its members, Steinfeder, Federspiel and Smaragd. The Codex Wachau is a clear acknowledgement  to the natural production of wine and commitment to strict quality control.

    vineyard site
    defined or enclosed vineyard area

    Refers to a defined or marked-out vineyard area or site, that contains the same geographical, soil and climatic conditions. Also called a single vineyard.

    vineyard(s)
    refers to a defined vineyard area with the same geographical aspects, soil structure and microclimate, and sometimes known as a single vineyard site
    vinification
    The wine-making operation from the reception of the grapes to the bottling of the finished wine.

    The term describes the complete steps in the process of winemaking.

    vinotheque
    qualified wine retailer
    vinous

    Describes a primary fruit aroma with varietal character.

    Vinovative
    the name of a Vintner Association

    Eight innovative wine producers from different wine-growing regions in Niederösterreich have united to form the Vinovative association.

    vintage Sekt

    Quality Sekt with vintage declaration.

    Vintner
    another term for vintner or producer

    Describes a wine producer, or vintner, and derives from the Austrian word 'Hauer‘, referring to the wine-grower that cultivated bush vines for wine production.

    vintner, wine producer
    refers to a person, who is employed in viticulture (the cultivation of grapevines)

    Vintner, producer or winemaker.

    viscosity
    the liquidity and viscosity of wine

    The viscosity is a visual impression of tears (church windows) on the inner surface of the glass, caused by high alcohol levels (glycerine), extract and sugar content.

    viticultural regions

    Landwein (wine with geographical indication) is obliged to indicate a viticultural region as its origin. The following regions are protected for this cause, "Weinland" (referring to the Federal States of Lower Austria, Burgenland and Vienna), to the Steirerland (the Federal State of Styria) and Bergland (Federal States of Upper Austria, Salzburg, Carinthia, Tyrol and Vorarlberg).

    Viticulture school
    The group description for colleges, that offer educational programmes for viticulture and oenology.

    These include the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences in Vienna, the HBLA in Klosterneuburg, as well as the vocational colleges in Krems, Eisenstadt and Silberberg.

    Vitikult
    the name of a Vintner Association

    Vitikult is the marketing name for the best value Blaufränkisch varietal wine that is produced by each of the member wine estates in Mittelburgenland.

    Vitis vinifera
    the common grape vine is the most important vine sub-species
    volatile acidity

    Volatile and gaseous condition of a wine with a pungent smell (e.g. vinegar).

    Vöslauer

    The old synonym for the black grape variety Blauer Portugieser, widespread in the Thermenregion, its name originating from its popularity in the wine-growing town of Bad Vöslau.

  • Wachau
    wine-growing region

    The narrow Danube valley between Melk and Krems is also a World Heritage Site. The 1,350 hectares of vineyards - mostly on steep terraces - feature mainly Grüner Veltliner and Riesling. Read more

    Wagram
    wine-growing region

    This loess-rich wine-growing area, with approx. 2,450 hectares, is divided into two zones. North of the Danube, the Wagram is the mecca of loess vineyards ideally suited for refined Grünen Veltliners. Read more

    Wagramer Selektion
    the name of a Vintner Association

    Quality-orientated association and brand association in Wagram, as well as being the members' own seal of approval for their best wine produced to strict criteria.

    Weingüter Wagram
    the name of a Vintner Association

    Winemakers' association in the wine-growing region of Wagram that focus on the leading Grüner Veltliner and speciality Roter Veltliner varieties. The best Grüner Veltiner produced by each wine estate is known as the WW1.

    Weinland

    Refers to the wine-growing region that include the Federal states of Niederösterreich, Burgenland and Wien  (Lower Austria, Burgenland and Vienna respectively).

    Weinviertel
    wine-growing region

    The Weinviertel is Austria’s largest specific wine-growing area. It has a wide range of grape varieties. But its main ingredient for success is Grüner Veltliner, especially when it reveals its typical “peppery” character. Read more

    Weinviertel DAC

    The regional typical Grüner Veltliner from the Weinviertel was the first wine-growing region to take the DAC designation, effective from the 2002 vintage. From the 2009 vintage, alongside the Klassik category, there is also the Reserve category.

    Weißburgunder
    a Pinot grape variety

    Refers to the youngest member of the extensive, old Pinot varieties, that is also widespread all over the world. The classic style of wines aged in steel tank are aromatic, delicate and elegant on the palate, with its soft fruit, a touch of herbaceousness and nutty spice, make outstanding companions to food. The international style of Pinot blanc, with malolactic fermentation and oak barrel maturation, is convincing with its opulence and length, as are Pinot blanc wines that are blended with other pinot varieties.

    Weißgipfler

    an old, rarely used synonym for Grüner Veltliner

    Welschriesling
    white wine variety

    The Welschriesling is a very versatile, diverse variety. From the base wine for sparkling wines from the northern Weinviertel, to dry, lively young wines (e.g. in the Steiermark), to the high quality, noble sweet Trockenbeerenauslese wines from Burgenland. The vibrant, drinking wines have dominant citrus and apple notes, over delicate spice; and the high quality sweet wines beguile with soft, creamy aromas and perfect balance of acidity and noble sweetness.

    Weststeiermark
    wine-growing region

    In the romantic Weststeiermark approx. 500 hectares vine are dedicated to the Blauer Wildbacher variety, from which one of the most unique terroir wines is produced: SchilcherRead more

    white pressed wines

    If the black grapes, or red wine varieties, are pressed relatively quickly, giving a must with minimal colour and extract. The light, white-pressed wines (also known as blanc de noirs) are significant for the production of sparking wines.

    white wine

    Refers to the wines made from green, yellow, grey or red-tinged grapes, and the grapes spend only a short time in contact on the skins during vinification. Austria is an ideal white wine producing country, with its hot summers, warm days and cool nights.

    White Wine Spritz
    refreshing drink of equal measure of wine and mineral or soda water

    The Gespritzter or “G´spritzter“ is a quaffable, thirst-quenching Austrian White Wine Spritz, wine mixed with an equal measure of soda or sparkling mineral water, that is particularly favoured in the warm summer months. Due to its generally low alcohol content, the Gespritzter is an ideal aperitiv or easy drinking wine to pair with food. The mixture is generally 50/50, with the Sommerg´spritzter being prepared with a larger proportion of water.

    white wine spritzer

    The Styrian name for a white wine spritz, or a mixture of wine and mineral water. see also G‘spritzer.

    whole bunch pressing
    production method

    This is the most gentle form of pressing the wines, and healthy grapes are carefully pressed in a (pneumatic) press without crushing or destemming. The result is a high quality fruity must that is low in phenolics.

    Wien
    wine-growing region

    With approx. 600 hectares of vineyards within the city limits, wine plays an important economic role in the Austrian capital. The excellent range of wines here include Grünen Veltliner and delicious red wines as well. Read more
    Wien (Vienna)

    WienWein
    the name of a Vintner Association

    A collaborating group of winemakers from leading Viennese producers, who are committed to continued high quality, especially for the Gemischte Satz, or field blend.

    wild vines

    The diverse subspecies of grape vines varieties, (particularly Vitis vinifera silvestris).

    Wildbacher
    the pink or onion coloured wine, that is made entirely from the Blauer Wildbacher variety

    The variety is native to the Weststeiermark, and it grows on gneiss and slate soils and develops an often grassy and spicy bouquet, over white and blackcurrant aromas. The palate displays distinctive, robust acidity that supports the fruit and mineral aspects of the wine. The name Schilcher is a protected term for the Steiermark. Further "lively" products from the Blauer Wildbacher variety include the Schilchersturm, Schilcherfrizzante and Schilchersekt.

    wind wheel
    typical landmark and touristic attraction in the Steiermark

    Wind wheel that makes a loud noise when activated, to act as a bird scarer when the grapes are ripe in the vineyards. A typical landmark and tourist attraction in the Steiermark.

    wine bottle opener
    a device used to extract the cork from the wine bottle

    The equipment used to remove the cork out of a wine bottle, and there is a wide range of various models available.

    wine brand

    Refers to a wine that is marketed in a large quantity and fulfils the criteria for a wine brand.

    wine brand
    refers to a wine that is marketed in a large quantity and fulfils the criteria for a wine brand

    The taste of these wines are generally stable, without vintage variation, and are produced to fulfil a certain price bracket, along with other criteria.

    wine brandy

    A quality spirit that contains at least 38% alcohol by volume, and is produced by distilling grape marc.

    wine cellar

    Mostly subterrenean room used for the storage of wine.

    wine compounds
    extract

    The total of all non-volative solids in the wine, including sugar, colour, tannin, acidity, traces of minerals, protein, and glycerine. If the sugars were to be removed, we call this the sugar-free extract of the wine. The value is always given in grams per litre (g/l).

    wine cooperative

    Cooperative of vintners (according to Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen's concept) that deliver grapes, vinify, market and sell wine at one single winery, or wine-making facility. Wine cooperatives are regarded as cooperative producers. Leading Austrian cooperatives include the Domäne Wachau, Winzer Krems, Winzergenossenschaft Andau/Tadten, Winzerkeller Neckenmarkt as well as the Vereinte Winzer Blaufränkischland.

    wine diseases
    a wine disease describes a fault, that is caused by a micro organism

    This is often caused by insufficient hygiene or lack of knowledge. The most common wine diseases are harshness, volatile acidity, acetone (smell of glue), brettanomyces (sweaty saddle, farmyard smell) or lactic acid.

    Wine Estate
    winery

    Domaine is also a term used in Austria, coming from the French and German words.

    Wine Estate, Winery

    The definition of a wine producer with his or her own vineyards, and in contrast to a wine making facility, markets and sells wine originating from own produce of grapes.

    wine fault

    A wine fault is defined as being caused by external factors that have a negative influence on the wine. Often uncleanliness or mistakes in wine-making operations can be the cause. Other faults include cork taint, mustiness, hydrogen sulphur, volatile acidity, premature aging and oxidation, taste of wet cardboard, astringency and medicinal note, amongst others. We generally regard a fault caused by micro organisms as a wine disease.

    wine glass

    Wine glasses should ideally be tulip-shaped, clear, colourless and with thin glass and a relatively long stem, with which to hold the glass, as well as a sufficient capacity to swirl the wine and allow the aromas to evolve. Ideally, a white wine is filled to the halfway measure of the glass, and the red wine to a third.

    wine grape variety (varieties)

    There are eleven ampelography groups sigificant in the Vitis vinifera subspecies. The main differences are between early and late ripening varieties. There are also categories for indigenous and international varieties. In Austria, the following grapes varietes are classified for the production of Quality Wine. White wine varieties: Bouvier, Chardonnay (Morillon), Frühroter Veltliner (Malvasier), Furmint, Goldburger, Grauer Burgunder (Pinot Gris, Ruländer), Grüner Veltliner (Weißgipfler), Jubiläumsrebe, Müller-Thurgau (Rivaner), Muskateller (Gelber Muskateller, Roter Muskateller), Muskat-Ottonel, Neuburger, Roter Veltliner, Rotgipfler, Sauvignon Blanc, Scheurebe (Sämling 88), Sylvaner (Grüner Sylvaner), Traminer (Gewürztraminer, Roter Traminer), Weißer Burgunder (Weißburgunder, Pinot Blanc, Klevner), Weißer Riesling (Riesling, Rheinriesling), Welschriesling and Zierfandler (Spätrot). The red wine varieties are: Blauburger, Blauer Burgunder (Blauer Spätburgunder, Blauburgunder, Pinot Noir), Blauer Portugieser, Blauer Wildbacher, Blaufränkisch, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Rathay, Roesler, St. Laurent, Syrah and Zweigelt (Blauer Zweigelt, Rotburger).

    wine growers association

    Regional associations of wine producers that occur in all of the wine-growing regions, and acts as a basis for organisation and officially acknowledged form of self organisation for the vintners.

    wine guild, wine society

    Amateur society of wine enthusiasts sharing the aim and purpose of improving their wine knowledge and pleasure.

    wine inspection

    In Austria, the inspection of wine is undertaken by the Federal winery inspectors, aided by the designated inspectors, or to use their German name, the "Mostwäger". The Federal winery inspectors (Bundeskellereiinspektoren or BKI) supervisory board reports directly to the Ministry of Agriculture. They supervise the sale and distribution of wine, the entire vinification process and take samples. The main focus of their activities occurs during the main harvest, when they inspect the must weight, but also advise and consult wineries.

    wine judgement

    The Roman formula for tasting is known as COS (colour-odour-sapour), referring to the colour, aroma and taste of wine. Today wines are still tasted in this method. In many cases, we also find rating systems that make it easy to compare the visual quality of wines. The 20 point rating system used to be popular, yet an increasing number of magazines and wine journalists are using the 100 point system. See also degustation and tasting.

    wine knights

    The European Weinritterschaft (Ordo Equestris Vini Europae), or wine knights, is a union of confederates and are committed to, for example, wine culture, the appreciation of wine, and wine knowledge, and organise a wide range of activities and events.

    wine label
    description on the bottle

    The wine label is the producer‘s business card. The following terms must be legally visible on Austrian Quality Wine: Producer/Bottler/Distributor, Origin (wine-growing region), Austria (or Österreich), Quality level (e.g. Qualitätswein), State control number, alcohol level, residual sugar classification (e.g. dry (trocken), medium dry (halbtrocken), medium sweet (lieblich), sweet (süß)), the volume of the bottle, along with the term ‘contains sulfites‘ (enthält Sulfite). Quality wine additionally has the highly visible red-white-red banderole control slip on the capsule or screwcap closure.

    Wine law

    The Austrian Wine Law was last amended in 2009, and is incorporated into EU wine legislation. The EU wine industry body defines a number of requirements and strict quality contol assessments, that Austria as a member state, must adhere to in its production of quality wine and its supervision. The Austrian wine law is subdivided into the categories of wine, fruit wine, quality control, sanctions, support and grants, as well as provisional and final regulations. The part relevant to wine includes production guidelines, marketing, description and packaging, wording and term definitions, geographic indications, yield restrictions, the State control number, the banderole (quality wine control seal), and so on.

    wine press
    Ein Gerät zum Ausquetschen oder Auspressen von Weintrauben oder Maische.

    The wine press is used for crushing or pressing the grapes or must. Nowadays, wines is pressed gently with pneumatic presses in the tube or bladder, as well as the scattered use of the hydraulic horizontal press. The Torculum or Roman presses only have historical significance. The traditional basket presses and screw presses are seldom in Austrian viticulure.

    wine press
    a piece of equipment used to crush or press the grapes or must

    A piece of machinery used in the wine-making operation of crushing or pressing the grapes or mash. Nowadays the gentle pneumatic presses are more widespread than, for example, the bladder presses. There is a small number of hydraulic horizontal presses in Austria, and the Torculum or Roman presses only have historical significance. The traditional basket presses and screw presses are seldom in Austrian viticulure.

    wine rating

    The Roman formula for tasting is known as COS (colour-odour-sapour), referring to the colour, aroma and taste of wine. Today wines are still tasted in this method. In many cases, we also find rating systems that make it easy to compare the visual quality of wines. The 20 point rating system used to be popular, yet an increasing number of magazines and wine journalists are using the 100 point system. See also degustation and tasting.

    wine ratings

    The Roman formula for tasting is known as COS (colour-odour-sapour), referring to the colour, aroma and taste of wine. Today wines are still tasted in this method. In many cases, we also find rating systems that make it easy to compare the visual quality of wines. The 20 point rating system used to be popular, yet an increasing number of magazines and wine journalists are using the 100 point system. See also degustation and tasting.

    wine routes
    infrastructure organised by local tourism or vintner associations

    Idyllic wine roads, or routes for wine enthusiasts, that are found in all wine-growing regions, and specially signposted, and marked out with special symbols, guiding visitors to the wine experience. Examples are the südsteirische Weinstraße in the Südsteiermark, and the Schilcherweinstraße in the Weststeiermark.

    Wine scandal

    The Austrian wine industry was disrupted as a result of the widely publicised diethylene glycol wine scandal in 1985. The consequence was the introduction of the most strict wine law in the world, with an uncomprimised push into producing quality wines, effectively the Austrian "Weinwunder“, or miracle. Other countries often has instances of wine adulteration by rogue producers, whose activities led to a wine scandal. An important reaction is to invest in wine inspections.

    wine sensory analysis
    the sensory analysis is the term used to describe the total impression and sensory perception of a wine

    In wine sensory analysis, the senses of sight, smell and taste play a central role.

    wine syphon
    cylindrical piece of equipment used to take a sample out of a fermenting or maturation vat

    The wine syphon is usually made of glass or plastic, and the wine is siphoned or sucked out. An alternative is the pipette.

    wine-grower‘s Sekt
    producer‘s sparkling wine

    Nowadays a rare term for Austrian quality sparkling wine from a wine-growing region. This description may only be used when the grapes were grown by the producer, the second fermentation occurred in the bottle, and the variety and vintage is clearly visable on the label. This is a protected description for Austrian Sekt and is the same as German Sekt or sparkling wine.

    wine-growing areas

    Austria currently has 16 specific wine-growing regions and four generic wine-growing areas. The generic areas are Niederösterreich (Lower Austria), Burgenland, Steiermark and Wien (Vienna). The 16 specific wine-growing regions are the Wachau, Kremstal, Kamptal, Wagram, Traisental, Weinviertel, Thermenregion, Carnuntum, Neusiedlersee, Neusiedlersee-Hügelland, Mittelburgenland, Südburgenland, Weststeiermark, Südsteiermark, Süd-Oststeiermark and (again) Vienna.

    wine-growing regions

    Austria currently has 16 specific wine-growing regions and four generic wine-growing areas. The generic areas are Niederösterreich (Lower Austria), Burgenland, Steiermark and Wien (Vienna). The 16 specific wine-growing regions are the Wachau, Kremstal, Kamptal, Wagram, Traisental, Weinviertel, Thermenregion, Carnuntum, Neusiedlersee, Neusiedlersee-Hügelland, Mittelburgenland, Südburgenland, Weststeiermark, Südsteiermark, Süd-Oststeiermark and (again) Vienna.

    wine-growing zones

    The EU divides the wine-growing countries into three major climatic zones. Zone A – the northern countries, e.g. Germany; Zone B - temperate zone with Austria; and Zone C - the southern nations, such as Italy.

    wine-making grape variety

    the cultivated grape variety for wine-making, as opposed to table grapes for eating.

    winemaker
    oenologist

    Specialised qualification in winemaking held by the winery director. The original Austrian words are "Weinbau- und Kellermeister“, literally viticulture and cellar master.

    winery
    place of vinification

    Mostly subterrenean room used for the storage of wine.

    winery
    place of vinification

    Mostly subterrenean room used for the storage of wine.

    wood

    The material used in the construction of wine barrels.

  • yeasts
    micro-organism, fungus

    Fungus that reproduce and convert available sugars into alcohol. Wild yeasts are found naturally in the vineyards and readily available on the grapes, and are known as the spontaneous yeasts. The yeasts used for wine production belong to the yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast strains, or cultured yeasts, are very popular for vinification, and are available in a powder form.

    yeasty

    A wine with an attractive aroma or flavour of yeast. Yeasty is a positive description.

    yield
    yield of the harvest

    The sum of the yield is measured, for example, in hectolitres per hectare, using the weight of the grapes, or volume of the must or wine.

    yield restriction

    The maximum permitted yield per hectare in Austria is 9,000 kg of grapes or 6,750 l of wine (67.5 hl/ha). This applies to Landwein (Land wine), Qualitätswein (Quality Wine), Prädikatswein (wine with praedicate, sweet wines) and Wein (Austrian wine without specific origin) with varietal and/or vintage declaration.

    yoke (acre)
    unit of measurement for surface area

    An age old form of measuring surface area in Austria, similar to the acre (1 yoke = 0.5755 hectare).

    young wine
    the first wine of the new vintage

    Often still a cloudy wine, as regarded shortly after the alcoholic fermentation.

    youthful, young

    Still a youthful, young and not yet mature wine.

  • Zierfandler
    indigenous white wine rarity in the Thermenregion. The synonym is Spätrot

    The name originates from its reddish colour grapes of this late-ripening variety. The Zierfandler proves to be quite a challenge in the vineyard, as it ripens late but starts to rot early. The wines are always rich in extract, racy and spicy with fruity and herbaceous characters. The sweet or dessert Zierfandler wines are in top form and are proven to long-term aging potential. The Zierfandler is sometimes still cultivated as a field blend or as a wine blend with the Rotgipfler variety, resulting in the "Spätrot-Rotgipfler“ wine.

    Zweigelt
    Austrian red wine variety

    Its creater, Prof. Dr. Fritz Zweigelt, successfully crossed Blaufränkisch x St. Laurent in 1922, and paved Austrian red wine history. Up until his death in 1964, the variety was known as Rotburger. Nowadays there are classic and fruity respresentatives of the wine, with cherry and berry aromas, as well as very ripe, extract rich top wines, that display feminine, fruity charm. With plantings of 13 percent of the total Austrian wine-growing region, this is by far the most planted and popular Austrian red wine variety.